The authors would like to thank Katherine White, Anne de Miranda, Jochem Marotzke, and Frank Bryan for informative discussions. Two anonymous referees also provided penetrating reviews. WKD is supported by NSF Grant OCE-9401977 and NASA Grants NAGW-3087 and NAGW-4883. YH and DY are supported by NSF Grant OCE-9115365, ONR Contract N00014-95-1-0501, and MMS Cooperative Agreement 14-35-0001-30804. Ms. Sheila Heseltine prepared the manuscript and the final figures and Ms. Jane Jimeian helped with computational parts of the paper.
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