This work is in part an extension of a problem suggested to the author by G. Veronis during the 1983 Summer Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). I am grateful for conversations with J. Price, R. Schmitt and G. Vallis, and for comments from two anonymous reviewers. Much of this work was done while the author enjoyed the hospitality of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant OCE94-15512), the Office of Naval Research (Grant N00014-93-1-1369), and WHOI.
Armi, L., 1978: Some evidence for boundary mixing in the deep ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,83, 1971–1979.
Colin de Verdiere, A., 1988: Buoyancy driven planetary flows. J. Mar. Res.,46, 215–265.
——, 1989: On the interaction of wind and buoyancy driven gyres. J. Mar. Res.,47, 495–633.
Cummins, P., 1991: The deep water stratification of ocean general circulation models. Atmos.–Ocean,19, 563–575.
de Szoeke, R., 1995: A model of wind- and buoyancy-driven ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 918–941.
Gregg, M., 1987: Diapycnal mixing in the thermocline: A review. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 5249–5286.
Hogg, N., 1987: A least-squares fit of the advective–diffusive equations to Levitus Atlas data. J. Mar. Res.,45, 347–375.
Ledwell, J., A. Watson, and C. Law, 1993: Evidence for slow mixing across the pycnocline from an open-ocean tracer-release experiment. Nature,364, 701–703.
Lueck, R., and T. Osborn, 1985: Turbulence measurements in a submarine canyon. Contin. Shelf Res.,4, 681–698.
Luyten, J., J. Pedlosky, and H. Stommel, 1983: The ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 292–309.
Marotzke, J., 1997: Boundary mixing and the dynamics of three-dimensional thermohaline circulations. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27,1713–1728.
Munk, W., 1966: Abyssal recipes. Deep-Sea Res.,13, 707–730.
Pedlosky, J., 1987: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. 2d ed. Springer-Verlag, 710 pp.
Polzin, K., J. Toole, J. Ledwell, and R. Schmitt, 1997: Spatial variability of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean. Science,276,93–96.
Salmon, R., 1990: The thermocline as an “internal boundary layer.”J. Mar. Res.,48, 437–469.
Samelson, R., and G. K. Vallis, 1997a: A simple friction and diffusion scheme for planetary geostrophic basin models. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 186–194.
——, and ——, 1997b: Large-scale circulation with small diapycnal diffusion: the two-thermocline limit. J. Mar. Res.,55, 223–275.
Stommel, H. and A. Arons, 1960: On the abyssal circulation of the world ocean—I. Stationary planetary flow patterns on a sphere. Deep-Sea Res.,6, 140–154.
Toole, J., R. Schmitt, K. Polzin, and E. Kunze, 1997: Fine and microstructure evidence of boundary mixing above the flanks of a mid-latitude seamount. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 947–959.
Welander, P., 1971: The thermocline problem. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,270A, 415–421.
Wesson, J., and M. Gregg, 1994: Mixing at Camarinal Sill in the Strait of Gibraltar. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 9847–9878.