This research is supported by the National Science Foundation Grants OCE-9115365 and OCE95-29289, by the Coastal Sciences Program of the Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-90-J-1820, by the Physical Oceanography Program of the Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-95-1-0501, and by the Minerals Management Service Cooperative Agreement 14-35-0001-30804. The first author wishes to express his gratitude to Mr. Takashi Yoshida of the Oceanographical Division of the Japan Meteorological Agency for providing the 10-day mean sea surface temperature data.
Daley, R., 1991: Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.
Draper, N. R., and H. Smith, 1966: Applied Regression Analysis. John Wiley, 407 pp.
Gill, P. E., W. Murray, and M. H. Wright, 1981: Practical Optimization. Academic Press, 401 pp.
Hsueh, Y., and D. Yuan, 1997: A numerical study of currents, heat advection and sea-level fluctuations in the Yellow Sea in winter of 1986. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 2313–2326.
Kelly, K. A., and B. Qiu, 1995: Heat flux estimates for the western North Atlantic. Part I: Assimilation of satellite data into a mixed layer model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 2344–2373.
Liu, D. C., and J. Nocedal, 1989: On the limited memory BFGS method for large scale minimization. Math. Prog.,45, 503–528.
Sasaki, Y., 1970: Some formations in numerical variational analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev.,98, 875–883.
Thacker, W. C., 1989: The role of the Hessian matrix in fitting models to measurements. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 6177–6199.
——, and R. B. Long, 1988: Fitting dynamics to data. J. Geophys. Res.,93(C2), 1227–1240.
Yu, L., and J. J. O’Brien, 1995: Variational data assimilation for determining the seasonal net surface heat flux using a tropical Pacific model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 2319–2343.
Yuan, D., 1995: Toward the prediction of surface temperature in the Yellow Sea in winter. Ph.D. dissertation, The Florida State University, 177 pp. [Available from DIRAC Library, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306.].
Zou, X., and I. M. Navon, 1994: Variational data assimilation: Some aspects of theory and application. Environmental Modeling, Vol. II, Computer Methods and Software for Simulating Environmental Pollution and Its Adverse Effects, P. Zannetti, Ed., Failure Analysis Associates Inc., 277–325.
——, ——, M. Berger, M. K. Phua, T. Schlick, and F. X. LeDimet, 1993: Numerical experience with limited-memory, quasi-Newton methods for large-scale unconstrained nonlinear minimization. SIAM J. Optimization,3, 582–608.