The authors acknowledge support by National Science Foundation Grants OCE-9314781, OCE-9316003, OCE-9529847, OCE-9413222, and OCE-9216984. Development of the numerical circulation model was funded in part by the Office of Naval Research and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank Jay McCreary for assistance in model development, James O’Brien for suggesting the Lagrangian experiments, Chantal Andrié and Richard Gammon for making their CFC data available, and anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions.
Bruce, J. G., 1973: Large-scale variations of the Somali Current during the southwest monsoon, 1970. Deep-Sea Res.,20, 837–846.
Camerlengo, A. L., and J. J. O’Brien, 1980: Open boundary conditions in rotating fluids. J. Comput. Phys.,35, 12–35.
Conkright, M. E., S. Levitus, T. P. Boyer, D. M. Bartolacci, and M. E. Luther, 1994: Atlas of the Northern Indian Ocean. NOM Tech. Rep. NOAA and University of South Florida, 158 pp. [Available from Dept. of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Avenue South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701.].
Doney, S., and J. L. Bullister, 1992: A chlorofluorocarbon section in the eastern North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., Part A,39, 1857–1883.
——, W. J. Jenkins, and J. L. Bullister, 1997: A comparison of ocean tracer dating techniques on a meridional section in the eastern North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res.,44, 603.
Döös, K., 1995: Interocean exchange of water masses. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 13 499–13 514.
England, M., 1995: Using chlorofluorocarbons to assess ocean climate models. Geophys. Res. Lett.,22, 3051–3054.
——, V. C. Garcon, and J.-F. Minster, 1994: Chlorofluorocarbon uptake in a World Ocean model. Part 1: Sensitivity to the surface gas forcing. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 25 215–25 233.
Fieux, M., C. Andrié, P. Delecluse, A. G. Ilahude, A. Kartavtseff, F. Mantisi, R. Molcard, and J. Swallow, 1994: Measurements within the Pacific–Indian Oceans throughflow region: Preliminary results of the JADE cruise. Deep-Sea Res.,41, 89–112.
——, ——, E. Charriaud, A. G. Ilahude, A. Kartavtseff, F. Mantisi, N. Metzl, R. Molcard, and J. C. Swallow, 1996: Hydrological and chlorofluoromethane measurements of the Indonesian throughflow entering the Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 12 433–12 454.
Figueroa, H. A., 1994: Eddy resolution versus eddy diffusion in a double gyre GCM. Part II: Mixing of passive tracers. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 387–402.
Findlay, A. G., 1866: A Directory for the Navigation of the Indian Ocean. Richard Holmes Laurie.
Fine, R. A., 1985: Direct evidence using tritium data for throughflow from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean. Nature,315, 478–480.
——, 1993: Circulation of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,40, 2021–2042.
——, M. A. Warner, and R. F. Weiss, 1988: Water mass modification at the Agulhas Retroflection: Chlorofluoromethane studies. Deep-Sea Res.,35, 311–332.
Gent, P. R., K. O’Neill, and M. A. Cane, 1983: A model of the semiannual oscillation in the equatorial Indian Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 2148–2160.
Gill, A. E., 1982: Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.
Gordon, A., and R. Fine, 1996: Pathways of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the Indonesian seas. Nature,379, 146–149.
Haines, M. A., M. E. Luther, and R. A. Fine, 1997: Model-validated parametrization for air–sea gas transfer in the North Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett.,24, 2545–2548.
Hautala, S. L., J. L. Reid, and N. Bray, 1996: The distribution and mixing of Pacific water masses in the Indonesian Seas. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 12 375–12 390.
Howell, E. A., S. C. Doney, R. A. Fine, and D. B. Olson, 1997: Geochemical estimates of denitrification in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal during WOCE. Geophys. Res. Lett.,24, 2549–2552.
Jensen, T., 1991: Modeling the seasonal undercurrents in the Somali Current system. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 22 151–22 168.
——, 1993: Equatorial variability and resonance in a wind-driven Indian Ocean model. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 22 533–22 552.
Knox, R. A., 1987: The Indian Ocean: Interaction with the monsoon. Monsoons, J. S. Fein and P. S. Stephens, Eds., John Wiley and Sons, 365–397.
Lee, T., and J. Marotzke, 1997: Inferring meridional mass and heat transports of the Indian Ocean by fitting a general circulation model to climatological data. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 10 585–10 602.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World 0cean. NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 173 pp.
Luther, M. E., 1999: Interannual variability in the Somali Current, 1954–1976. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, Vol. 35, Elsevier Science, 59–83.
——, and J. J. O’Brien, 1985: A model of the seasonal circulation in the Arabian Sea forced by observed winds. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 14, Pergamon, 353–385.
——, and ——, 1989: Modeling the variability of the Somali Current. Mesoscale/Synoptic Coherent Structures in Geophysical Turbulence, J. C. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart, Eds., Elsevier Oceanogr. Ser., Vol. 50, Elsevier Science, 373–386.
McCartney, M. S., 1982: The subtropical recirculation of mode waters. J. Mar. Res.,40, 424–464.
Meyers, G., R. J. Bailey, and A. P. Worby, 1995: Geostrophic transport of Indonesian Throughflow. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 42, 1163–1174.
Morales, R. A., E. D. Barton, and K. J. Heywood, 1996: Variability of water masses in the western Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,101 (C6), 14 027–14 038.
Press, W. H., S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, 1992: Numerical Recipes in Fortran: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, 963 pp.
Prunier, K. T., 1992: The spreading, mixing and ventilation of thermocline and intermediate waters in the Arabian Sea. M. S. thesis, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami.
Quadfasel, D. R., and G. R. Cresswell, 1992: A note on the seasonal variability of the South Java Current. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 3685–3688.
Rao, R. R., R. I. Molinari, and J. F. Festa, 1989: Evolution of the climatological near-surface thermal structure of the tropical Indian Ocean. Part I: Description of monthly mean mixed layer depth, and sea surface temperature, surface current, and surface meteorological fields. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 10 801–10 815.
Rhein, M., 1991: Ventilation rates of the Greenland and Norwegian Seas derived from distributions of CFMs F11 and F12. Deep-Sea Res., Part A, 38, 485–503.
Robbins, P. E., and J. M. Toole, 1997: The dissolved silica budget as a constraint on the meridional overturning circulation of the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part A, 44, 879–906.
Robitaille, D. Y., and A. J. Weaver, 1995: Validation of sub-grid-scale mixing schemes using CFCs in a global ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett.,22, 2917–2920.
Schott, F., J. C. Swallow, and M. Fieux, 1990: The Somali Current at the equator: Annual cycle of currents and transports in the upper 1000 m and connection to neighboring latitudes. Deep-Sea Res.,37, 1825–1848.
Semtner, A. J., Jr., and R. M. Chervin, 1992: Ocean general circulation from a global eddy resolving model. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 5493–5550.
Sprintall, J., and M. Tomczak, 1993: On the formation of Central Water and thermocline ventilation in the Southern Hemisphere. Deep-Sea Res.,40, 827–848.
Sverdrup, H. U., M. W. Johnson, and R. H. Fleming, 1942: The Oceans, Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology. Prentice-Hall, 1087 pp.
Swallow, J., 1984: Some aspects of the physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,31, 639–650.
——, and M. Fieux, 1982: Historical evidence for two gyres in the Somali Current system. J. Mar. Res.,40 (Suppl.), 747–755.
——, ——, and F. Schott, 1988: The boundary currents east and north of Madagascar. Part I: Geostrophic currents and transports. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 4951–4962.
Theile, G., and J. L. Sarmiento, 1990: Tracer dating and ocean ventilation. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 9377–9391.
Toole, J. M., and B. A. Warren, 1993: A hydrographic section across the subtropical south Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,40, 1973–2019.
Wallace, D. W. R., and J. R. N. Lazier, 1988: Anthropogenic chlorofluoromethanes in newly formed Labrador Sea Water. Nature,332, 61–63.
Warner, M. J., and R. F. Weiss, 1985: Solubilities of chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Res.,32, 1485–1497.
Warren, B. A., H. Stommel, and J. C. Swallow, 1966: Water masses and patterns of flow in the Somali Basin during the southwest monsoon of 1964. Deep-Sea Res.,13, 825–860.
Woodberry, K. E., M. E. Luther, and J. J. O’Brien, 1989: The wind-driven seasonal circulation in the southern tropical Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 17 985–18 002.
Wyrtki, K., 1971: Oceanographic Atlas of the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Balkema, 531 pp.
You, Y., 1997: Seasonal variations of thermocline circulation and ventilation in the Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 10 391–10 422.
——, and M. Tomczak, 1993: Thermocline circulation and ventilation in the Indian Ocean derived from water mass analysis. Deep-Sea Res.,40, 13–56.