We are grateful to S. D. Desai for preparing TOPEX data gridded to a reference track, and to S. Nerem, F. Bryan, T. M. vanDam, and J.-F. Minster for helpful discussion. This work was supported by the TOPEX project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under Contract 958126 to the University of Colorado. E.W.L. was partially supported by a 1996 CIRES Graduate Research Fellowship.
Behringer, D. W., M. Ji, and A. Leetmaa, 1998: An improved coupled model for ENSO prediction and implications for ocean initialization. Part I: The ocean data assimilation system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,126, 1013–1021.
Bretherton, C. S., C. Smith, and J. M. Wallace, 1992: An intercomparison of methods for finding coupled patterns in climate data. J. Climate,5, 541–560.
Carnes, M. R., J. L. Mitchell, and P. W. deWitt, 1990: Synthetic temperature profiles derived from Geosat altimetry: Comparison with air-dropped expendable bathythermograph profiles. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 17 979–17 992.
Chelton, D. B., and M. G. Schlax, 1996: Global observations of oceanic Rossby waves. Science,272, 234–237.
Cheney, R. E., 1982: Comparison data for Seasat altimetry in the western North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.,87, 3247–3253.
Church, J. A., J. S. Godfrey, D. R. Jackett, and T. R. McDougall, 1991: A model of sea level rise caused by ocean thermal expansion. J. Climate,4, 438–456.
Desai, S. D., and J. M. Wahr, 1995: Empirical ocean tide models estimated from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 25 205–25 228.
Enfield, B. D., and D. A. Mayer, 1997: Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 929–945.
Fu, L.-L., E. J. Christensen, C. A. Yamarone Jr., M. Lefebvre, Y. Ménard, M. Dorrer, and P. Escudier, 1994: TOPEX/Poseidon mission overview. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 24 369–24 381.
Hayne, G. S., D. W. Hancock III, and C. L. Purdy, 1994: TOPEX altimeter range stability estimates from calibration mode data. TOPEX/Poseidon Research News,October, 18–22. [Available from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109.].
Hendricks, J. R., R. R. Leben, G. H. Born, and C. J. Koblinsky, 1996:Empirical orthogonal function analysis of global TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data and implications for detection of global sea level rise. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 14 131–14 145.
Hsiung, J., and R. E. Newell, 1983: The principal nonseasonal modes of variation of global sea surface temperature. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 1957–1967.
Hu, W., R. E. Newell, and Z.-X. Wu, 1994: Modes of variability of global sea surface temperature, free atmosphere temperature and oceanic surface energy flux. Climate Dyn.,10, 377–393.
Kawamura, R., 1994: A rotated EOF analysis of global sea surface temperature variability with interannual and interdecadal series. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 606–715.
Khedouri, E., and C. Szczechowski, 1983: Potential oceanographic applications of satellite altimetry for inferring subsurface thermal structure. Oceans 83, Proc. Mar. Technol. Soc., 274–280.
Lanzante, J. R., 1984: A rotated eigenanalysis of the correlation between 700 mb heights and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 2270–2280.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World. NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce, 173 pp.
——, 1984: Annual cycle of temperature and heat storage in the world ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,14, 727–746.
Mitchum, G. T., 1993: Principal component analysis: Basic methods and extensions. Statistical Methods in Physical Oceanography, P. Müller and D. Henderson, Eds., SOEST Special Publication, 185–199.
Nerem, R. S., and E. J. Schrama, 1994: A preliminary evaluation of ocean topography from the TOPEX/Poseidon mission. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 26 565–26 583.
——, B. J. Haines, J. Hendricks, J. F. Minster, G. T. Mitchum, and W. B. White, 1997: Improved determination of global mean sea level variations from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data. Geophys. Res. Lett.,24, 1331–1334.
North, G. R., F. J. Moeng, T. L. Bell, and R. F. Cahalan, 1982: The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 319–326.
Pattullo, J., W. Munk, R. Revelle, and E. Strong, 1955: The seasonal oscillation in sea level. J. Mar. Res.,14, 88–155.
Prohaska, J. T., 1976: A technique for analyzing the linear relationships between two meteorological fields. Mon. Wea. Rev.,104, 1345–1353.
Reynolds, R. W., and T. M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Climate,7, 929–948.
Rousseeuw, P. J., 1984: Least median of squares regression. J. Amer. Stat. Assoc.,79, 871–880.
——, and A. M. Leroy, 1987: Robust Regression and Outlier Detection. John Wiley & Sons, 329 pp.
Shum, C. K., J. C. Ries, and B. D. Tapley, 1995: The accuracy and applications of satellite altimetry. Geophys. J. Int.,121, 321–336.
Stammer, D., 1997: Steric and wind-induced changes in TOPEX/Poseidon large-scale sea surface topography observations. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 20 987–21 009.
Tapley, B. D., and Coauthors, 1994: Precision orbit determination for TOPEX/Poseidon. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 24 383–24 404.
Wallace, J. M., C. Smith, and C. S. Bretherton, 1992: Singular value decomposition of wintertime sea surface temperature and 500-mb height anomalies. J. Climate,5, 561–576.
Weare, B. C., 1977: Empirical orthogonal analysis of Atlantic Ocean surface temperatures. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,103, 467–478.
——, 1979: A statistical study of the relationships between ocean surface temperatures and the Indian monsoon. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 2279–2291.
——, A. R. Navato, and R. E. Newell, 1976: Empirical orthogonal analysis of Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,6, 671–678.
White, W. B., and C.-K. Tai, 1992: Reflection of interannual Rossby waves at the maritime western boundary of the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 14 305–14 322.
Wigley, T. M. L., and S. C. B. Raper, 1987: Thermal expansion of sea water associated with global warming. Nature,330, 127–131.
Zou, J., and M. Latif, 1994: Modes of ocean variability in the tropical Pacific as derived from Geosat altimetry. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 9963–9975.