Discussions with Bruce Cornuelle, David Pierce, Tim Barnett, Paola Cessi, and Zhengyu Liu are gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank W. B. White for generously making available the subsurface temperature analysis. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF OCE97-11265), by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as part of the Experimental Climate Prediction Center (NA77RJ0453), and the Consortium for the Ocean’s Role in Climate (NA47GP0188).
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