I wish to thank George Mellor for his support and encouragement during my postdoctoral affiliation with the AOS program. Critical comments of the anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged. Funding for this study was provided by the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA) Grant NA67RJ0120. During the revision of the paper I received financial support by the German Ministry of Science and Technology (BMBF, WOCE IV).
Ambar, I., and M. R. Howe, 1979: Observations of the Mediterranean outflow—II. The deep circulation in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz. Deep-Sea Res.,26, 535–554.
Arhan, M., and B. King, 1995: Lateral mixing of Mediterranean Water in the eastern North Atlantic. J. Mar. Res.,53, 865–895.
Armi, L., and W. Zenk, 1984: Large lenses of highly saline Mediterranean water. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,14, 1560–1576.
——, D. Hebert, N. Oakey, J. Price, P. L. Richardson, T. Rossby, and B. Ruddick, 1989: Two years in the life of a Mediterranean salt lens. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,19, 354–370.
Baey, J.-M., D. Renouard, and G. Chabert D’Hieres, 1995: Preliminary results about the stability of an intermediate water current. Deep-Sea Res.,42, 2063–2073.
Baringer, M. O., 1993: Mixing and dynamics of the Mediterranean outflow. Ph.D. thesis, Massachussetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program, WHOI-93-52, 244 pp. [Available from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 12543.].
Beckmann, A., and R. H. Käse, 1989: Numerical simulations of the movements of a Mediterranean water lens. Geophys. Res. Lett.,16, 65–68.
Blumberg, A. F., and G. L. Mellor, 1987: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, N. Heaps, Ed., Coastal Estuarine Sciences, Vol. 4, Amer. Geophys. Union, 1–16.
Bower, A. S., L. Armi, and I. Ambar, 1995: Direct evidence of meddy formation off the southwestern coast of Portugal. Deep-Sea Res.,42, 1621–1630.
——, ——, and ——, 1997: Lagrangian observations of meddy formation during a Mediterranean undercurrent seeeding experiment. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 2545–2575.
Chapman, D. C., 1985: Numerical treatment of cross-shelf open boundaries in a barotropic coastal ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 1060–1075.
Daniault, N., J. P. Mazé, and M. Arhan, 1994: Circulation and mixing of Mediterranean water west of the Iberean peninsula. Deep-Sea Res.,41, 1685–1714.
D’Asaro, E. A., 1988: Generation of submesoscale vortices: A new mechanism. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 6685–6693.
Ezer, T., and G. L. Weatherly, 1990: A numerical study of the interaction between a deep cold jet and the bottom boundary layer of the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 801–816.
Gill, A. E., 1981: Homogeneous intrusions in a rotating stratified fluid. J. Fluid Mech.,103, 275–295.
——, 1982: Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.
Griffiths, R. W., and P. F. Linden, 1981: The stability of buoyancy-driven coastal currents. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,5, 281–306.
——, P. D. Killworth, and M. E. Stern, 1982: Ageostrophic instabilities of ocean currents. J. Fluid Mech.,117, 343–377.
Jiang, L., and R. W. Garwood Jr., 1996: Three-dimensional simulations of overflows on continental slopes. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 1214–1233.
Johnson, G. C., T. B. Sanford, and M. O. Baringer, 1994: Stress on the Mediterranean outflow plume: Part I. Velocity and water property measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 2072–2083.
Jungclaus, J. H., and J. O. Backhaus, 1994: Application of a transient reduced gravity plume model to the Denmark Strait overflow. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 12 375–12 396.
——, and G. L. Mellor, 1999: A three-dimensional model study of the Mediterranean outflow. J. Mar. Syst., in press.
Karsten, R. H., G. E. Swaters, and R. E. Thomson, 1995: Stability characteristics of deep water replacement in the Strait of Georgia. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 2391–2403.
Käse, R. H., and W. Zenk, 1987: Reconstructed Mediterranean salt lens trajectories. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 158–163.
——, and ——, 1996: Structure of the Mediterranean Water and meddy characteristics in the northeastern Atlantic. The Warmwatersphere of the North Atlantic Ocean, W. Krauss, Ed., Gebrüder Bornträger Verlag, 365–395.
——, A. Beckmann, and H. H. Hinrichsen, 1989: Observational evidence of salt lens formation in the Iberian basin. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 4905–4912.
Kinder, T. B., and H. L. Bryden, 1990: Aspiration of deep waters through straits. The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, L. J. Pratt, Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 295–313.
MacCready, P., and P. Rhines, 1993: Buoyant inhibitation of Ekman transport on a slope. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 5–22.
McWilliams, J. C., and P. R. Gent, 1986: The evolution of sub-mesoscale, coherent vortices on the β-plane. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn.,35, 235–255.
Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.,20, 851–875.
——, and A. F. Blumberg, 1985: Modeling vertical and horizontal diffusivities with the sigma-coordinate system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,113, 1380–1383.
Pedlosky, J., 1964: The stability of currents in the atmosphere and in the oceans. Part I. J. Atmos. Sci.,21, 201–219.
Prater, M. D., 1992: Observations and hypothesized generation of a meddy in the Gulf of Cadiz. Ph.D. thesis, University of Washington, 143 pp. [Available from Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6698.].
——, and T. B. Sanford, 1994: A meddy off Cape St. Vincent. Part I: Description. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 1572–1586.
Price, J. F., and M. O. Baringer, 1994: Outflow and deep water production by marginal seas. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 33, Pergamon, 161–200.
Røed, L. P., 1980: Curvature effects on hydraulically driven inertial boundary currents. J. Fluid Mech.,96, 395–412.
Schultz Tokos, K., and T. Rossby, 1991: Kinematics and dynamics of a Medierranean salt lens. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 879–892.
Shapiro, G. I., S. L. Meschanov, and M. V. Emelianov, 1995: Mediterranean salt lens ‘Irving’ after ist collision with seamounts. Oceanol. Acta,18, 309–318.
Siedler, G., W. Zenk, and W. J. Emery, 1985: Strong-current events related to a subtropical front in the Northeast Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 885–897.
Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. I. The basic experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,91, 99–164.
Stammer, D., H.-H. Hinrichsen, and R. H. Käse, 1991: Can Meddies be detected by satellite altimetry? J. Geophys. Res.,96, 7005–7014.
Swaters, G. E., 1991: On the baroclinic instability of cold-core coupled density fronts on a sloping continental shelf. J. Fluid Mech.,224, 361–382.
Wheatherly, G. L., and P. J. Martin, 1978: On the structure and dynamics of the oceanic bottom boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,8, 557–570.
Zenk, W., 1975: On the Mediterranean outflow west of Gibraltar. Meteor Forschungsergeb.,A16, 23–34.
——, and L. Armi, 1990: The complex spreading patterns of Mediterranean Water off the Portuguese continental slope. Deep-Sea Res.,37, 1805–1823.
——, K. Schultz Tokos, and O. Boebel, 1992: New observations of meddy movement south of the Tejo plateau. Geophys. Res. Lett.,19, 2389–2392.