The authors are grateful to Bob Spencer and the POL Technology Group for deploying and recovering the BPRs and calibrating the data. We are also indebted to Robin Tokmakian (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey) for her time spent extracting and sending the relevant POCM data, to Tony Craig (NCAR) for supplying the gridded wind stress data, to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level at POL for Faraday sea levels, to William Connolley (BAS) for the Faraday atmospheric pressures, and to Phil Woodworth and Dave Stevens for useful discussions. This work was funded partly by the U.K. Defence Research Agency and the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council.
Anderson, D. L. T., and A. E. Gill, 1975: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with applications to upwelling. Deep-Sea Res.,22, 583–596.
——, and P. D. Killworth, 1977: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with topography. Deep-Sea Res.,24, 709–732.
Baker, D. J., Jr., 1982: A note on Sverdrup balance in the southern ocean. J. Mar. Res.,40(Suppl.), 20–26.
Branstator, G., and J. D. Opsteegh, 1989: Free solutions of the barotropic vorticity equation. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1799–1814.
Bryden, H. L., and R. A. Heath, 1985: Energetic eddies at the northern edge of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the southwest Pacific. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 14, Pergamon, 65–87.
Chelton, D. B., 1982: Statistical reliability and the seasonal cycle: Comments on “Bottom pressure measurements across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and their relation to the wind.” Deep-Sea Res.,29A, 1381–1388.
——, A. M. Mestas-Nunez, and M. H. Freilich, 1990: Global wind stress and Sverdrup circulation from the Seasat scatterometer. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 1175–1205.
Clarke, A. J., 1982: The dynamics of large-scale, wind-driven variations in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,12, 1092–1105.
Dittmer, K., 1977: The hydrodynamic roughness of the sea surface at low wind speeds. Meteor. Forschungsergeb.,12(B), 10–15.
ECMWF, 1991: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model physical parameterisation. ECMWF Research Manual 3, 97 pp.
——, 1992: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation. ECMWF Research Manual 1, 82 pp.
FRAM Group, 1991: An eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union,72(17), 169–175.
Gill, A. E., 1968: A linear model of the Antarctic circumpolar current. J. Fluid Mech.,32, 465–488.
——, and P. P. Niiler, 1973: The theory of the seasonal variability in the ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,20, 141–177.
Grose, T. J., J. A. Johnson, and G. R. Bigg, 1995: A comparison between the FRAM (Fine Resolution Antarctic Model) results and observations in Drake Passage. Deep-Sea Res.,42, 365–388.
Han, Y. -J., and S. -W. Lee, 1981: A new analysis of monthly mean wind stress over the global ocean. Climatic Research Institute Rep. 26, 148 pp. [Available from Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4501.].
Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 1093–1104.
Hughes, C. W., 1996: The use of topographic wave modes to solve for the barotropic mode of a rigid-lid ocean model. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,13, 751–761.
——, 1997: Comments on “On the obscurantist physics of ‘form drag’ in theorizing about the Circumpolar Current.” J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 209–210.
——, and P. D. Killworth, 1995: Effects of bottom topography in the large-scale circulation of the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 2485–2497.
——, M. S. Jones, and S. Carnochan, 1998: The use of transient features to identify eastward currents in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,103, 2929–2944.
Jayne, S. R., and R. Tokmakian, 1997: Forcing and sampling of ocean general circulation models: Impact of high-frequency motions. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 1173–1179.
Johnson, G. C., and H. L. Bryden, 1989: On the size of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Res.,36, 39–53.
Johnson, M. A., 1990: A source of variability in Drake Passage. Contin. Shelf Res.,10, 629–638.
Killworth, P. D., and M. M. Nanneh, 1994: Isopycnal momentum budget of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 1201–1223.
Klinck, J. M., 1991: Vorticity dynamics of seasonal variations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current from a modeling study. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 1515–1533.
Large, W. G., and S. Pond, 1982: Sensible and latent heat flux measurements over the oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,12, 464–482.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, U. S. Govt. Printing Office, 173 pp.
Meredith, M. P., 1995: On the temporal variability of the transport through Drake Passage. Ph.D. thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, 227 pp. [Available from University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom.].
——, J. M. Vassie, K. J. Heywood, and R. Spencer, 1996: On the temporal variability of the transport through Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 22 485–22 494.
——, ——, R. Spencer, and K. J. Heywood, 1997: On the processing and application of inverted echo sounder data from Drake Passage. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,14, 871–882.
Morrow, R., R. Coleman, J. Church, and D. Chelton, 1994: Surface eddy momentum flux and velocity variances in the Southern Ocean from Geosat altimetry. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 2050–2071.
Munk, W. H., and E. Palmén, 1951: Note on the dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Tellus,3, 53–55.
Olbers, D., 1998: Comments on “On the obscurantist physics of ‘form drag’ in theorizing about the Circumpolar Current.” J. Phys. Oceanogr.,28, 1647–1654.
Peterson, R. G., 1988a: On the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current through Drake Passage and its relation to wind. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 13 993–14 004.
——, 1988b: Comparisons of sea level and bottom pressure measurements at Drake Passage. J. Geophys Res.,93, 12 439–12 448.
Read, P. L., P. B. Rhines, and A. A. White, 1986: Geostrophic scatter diagrams and potential vorticity dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 3236–3240.
Schacher, G. E., K. L. Davidson, T. E. Houlihan, and C. W. Fairall, 1981: Measurements of the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, ϵ, over the ocean. Bound. Layer Meteor.,20, 321–330.
Semtner, A. J., Jr., and R. M. Chervin, 1992: Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 5493–5550.
Spencer, R., and J. M. Vassie, 1997: The evolution of deep ocean pressure measurements in the U.K. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 40, Pergamon, 423–435.
——, and Coauthors, 1993: The ACCLAIM Programme in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Int. Hydrogr. Rev.,70, 7–21.
Stammer, D., R. Tokmakian, A. Semtner, and C. Wunsch, 1996: How well does a ¼° global circulation model simulate large-scale oceanic observations? J. Geophys. Res.,101, 25 779–25 811.
Stevens, D. P., 1991: The open boundary condition in the United Kingdom Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 1494–1499.
——, and P. D. Killworth, 1992: The distribution of kinetic energy in the Southern Ocean. A comparison between observations and an eddy resolving general circulation model. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,338B, 251–257.
Stommel, H., 1957: A survey of ocean current theory. Deep-Sea Res.,4, 149–184.
Treguier, A. M., and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Topographic influence on wind-driven stratified flow in a β-plane channel: An idealized model for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 321–343.
Trenberth, K. E., 1992: Global analyses from ECMWF and atlas of 1000 to 10mb circulation statistics. NCAR Tech. Note TN-373+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 191 pp.
Warren, B. A., J. H. LaCasce, and P. E. Robbins, 1996: On the obscurantist physics of “form drag” in theorizing about the Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 2297–2301.
——, ——, and ——, 1997: Reply. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 211–212.
Wearn, R. B., and D. J. Baker Jr., 1980: Bottom pressure measurements across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and their relation to the wind. Deep-Sea Res.,27A, 875–888.
Wells, N. C., and B. A. de Cuevas, 1995: Vorticity dynamics of the Southern Ocean from a general circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 2569–2582.
Whitworth, T., III, 1983: Monitoring the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at Drake Passage. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 2045–2057.
——, and R. G. Peterson, 1985: Volume transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current from bottom pressure measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 810–816.
——, W. D. Nowlin, and S. J. Worley, 1982: The net transport of the Antarctic Circumolar Current through Drake Passage. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,12, 960–970.
Willebrand, J., S. G. H. Philander, and R. C. Pacanowski, 1980: The oceanic response to large-scale atmospheric disturbances. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,10, 411–429.
Wolff, J. -O., E. Maier-Reimer, and D. Olbers, 1991: Wind-driven flow over topography in a zonal β-plane channel: A quasi-geostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 236–264.
Woodworth, P. L., J. M. Vassie, C. W. Hughes, and M. P. Meredith, 1996: A test of the ability of TOPEX/POSEIDON to monitor flows through the Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 11 935–11 947.