R. Davis is supported by NOAA through the Consortium on the Ocean’s Role in Climate;D. Farmer by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada; and J. Lazier by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada. P. Rhines and J. Lilly are supported by the Office of Naval Research, and a DOD graduate Fellowship. The Bravo mooring was first funded by NOAA–Atlantic Climate Change Program, with contributions from the Office of Naval Research. M. Visbeck is supported by the Office of Naval Research and F. Schott by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Grant Scho/168/24-1. We thank the skillful and dedicated personnel of the CSS Hudson and the staff of Bedford Institute of Oceanography for carrying out so much of the work reported here. We also thank I. Yashayaev for supplying Fig. 2, R. A. Clarke for the data used in Fig. 11, and A. Sy for the Meteor data used in Fig. 13.
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