We are very grateful to a number of people who have given us access to their datasets. Mark Swenson and Zengxi Zhou of the Atlantic Oceanographic Marine Laboratory have provided the monthly averaged surface drifters, and Sydney Levitus and Robert Cheney and their colleagues at the National Oceanographic Data Center/NOAA have provided access to the hydrographic and altimeter data. We have benefited from the datasets collected by principal investigators of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere/World Oceanographic Circulation Experiments. Finally, we want to express our gratitude for support from the Office of Global Programs/NOAA under Grant NA66GP0269 and the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE9416894.
Bennett, A. F., 1990: Inverse Methods in Physical Oceanography. Cambridge University Press, 346 pp.
Carton, J. A., and B. Huang, 1994: Warm events in the tropical Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 888–903.
——, G. Chepurin, X. Cao, and B. S. Giese, 2000: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950–95. Part I: Method. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,30, 294–309.
Cheney, R. E., L. Miller, and J. Lillibridge, 1994: Topex/Poseidon: The 2 cm solution. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 24, 555–563.
Chepurin, G. A., and J. A. Carton, 1999: Comparison of retrospective analyses of the global ocean heat content. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, submitted.
da Silva, A. M., C. C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994, Vol. 1: Algorithms and Procedures. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 6, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS, 83 pp.
Daley, R., 1991: Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.
Deser, C., M. A. Alexander, and M. S. Timlin, 1996: Upper-ocean thermal variations in the North Pacific during 1970–91. J. Climate,9, 1840–1855.
Enfield, D. B., and D. A. Meyer, 1997: Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 929–945.
Frankignoul, C., F. Bonjean, and G. Reverdin, 1996: Interannual variability of surface currents in the tropical Pacific during 1987–1993. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 3629–3647.
Graham, N. E., 1994: Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: Observations and model results. Climate Dyn.,10, 135–162.
Hsiung, J., R. E. Newell, and T. Houghtby, 1989: The annual cycle of oceanic heat storage and oceanic meridional heat transport. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,115, 1–28.
Hurrell, J. W., and H. van Loon, 1997: Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climatic Change,36, 301–326.
Ji, M., A. Leetmaa, and J. Derber, 1995: An ocean analysis system for seasonal to interannual climate studies. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 460–481.
Latif, M., and T. Barnett, 1994: Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science,266, 634–637.
Levitus, S., 1990: Interpentadal variability of steric sea level and geopotential thickness of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1970–1974 versus 1955–1959. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 5233–5238.
——, and J. Antonov, 1995: Observational evidence of interannual to decadal-scale variability of the subsurface temperature–salinity structure of the world ocean. Climatic Change,31, 495–514.
——, and ——, 1997: Climatological and Interannual Variability of Temperature, Heat Storage, and Rate of Heat Storage in the Upper Ocean. NESDIS Atlas Series 16, NOAA, 6 pp.
——, T. P. Boyer, and J. Antonov, 1994: World Ocean Atlas, 1994. Vol. 5: Interannual Variability of Upper Ocean Thermal Structure, NESDIS Atlas Series, NOAA, 176 pp.
Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., 1996: Modern Approaches to Data Assimilation in Ocean Modeling. Elsevier, 455 pp.
Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, and T. P. Barnett, 1994: The 1976–77 climate shift of the Pacific Ocean. Oceanography,7, 21–26.
Miller, R. N., and M. Cane, 1996: Tropical data assimilation: Theoretical aspects. Modern Approaches to Data Assimilation in Ocean Modeling, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, Ed., Elsevier, 207–234.
Mitchum, G., 1994: Comparison of TOPEX sea surface heights and tide gauge sea levels. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 24 541–24 553.
Reynolds, R. W., and T. M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analysis using optimum interpolation. J. Climate,7, 929–948.
Trenberth, K. E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1994: Decadal atmosphere–ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dyn.,9, 303–319.
Wang, B., 1995: Interdecadal changes in El Niño onset in the last four decades. J. Climate,8, 267–285.
Wunsch, C., 1996: The Ocean Circulation Inverse Problem. Cambridge University Press, 442 pp.