We wish to thank to R. Hallberg, S. Griffies, R. Pacanowski, and A. Gnanadesikan for their help with the models, useful discussions, and suggestions. We also thank to the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions. Calculations were performed using the GFDL NOAA computing facilities. This research was supported by DOC NOAA Grant NA56GP0151, GFDL-Princeton University Visiting Scientist Program (Y.-G. Park), and DOE Grant DE-FG02-94ER61920 (K. Bryan).
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