We thank Drs. Mary-Elena Carr, Erik Gottlieb, Stephen Howden, and Edward Kearns, and Prof. R. Watts for helpful discussions over the course of this work. Special thanks to Dr. Paulo Polito for all the help in every stage of this work with invaluable comments and scientific discussions and for creating two figures in this manuscript. Our appreciation is extended to Ms. Sandy Fontana-Anderson, Stephanie Schollaert, and Paula Perez-Brunius. This work is part of O.S.’s Ph.D. thesis, and she wishes to acknowledge the helpful comments from committee members Drs. Dave Hebert, John Merrill, James Miller, and Stephan Grilli. We also wish to thank the two anonymous reviewers for very constructive suggestions that helped to improve the manuscript significantly. One of us (O.S.) was supported by a fellowship from the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology and CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico). We gratefully acknowledge NOAA for their support in the final stage of this work, which was funded by NOAA OGP Grants NA16RC0523 and NA56GP0220.
Armi, L., and N. A. Bray, 1982: A standard analytic curve of potential temperature versus salinity for the Western North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,12, 384–387.
Bennett, A. F., 1978: Poleward heat fluxes in the Southern Hemisphere oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,8, 785–798.
Bower, A. S., and T. Rossby, 1989: Evidence of cross-frontal exchange processes in the Gulf Stream based on isopycnal RAFOS float data. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,19, 1177–1190.
Bryan, K., 1962: Measurements of meridional heat transport by ocean currents. J. Geophys. Res.,67, 3403–3414.
Bunker, A. F., 1976: Computations of surface energy flux and annual air–sea interaction cycles of the North Atlantic Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev.,104, 1122–1140.
Coachman, L. K., K. Aagaard, and R. B. Tripp, 1975: Bering Strait:The Regional Physical Oceanography. University of Washington Press, 172 pp.
Ezer, T., G. L. Mellor, and R. J. Greatbatch, 1995: On the interpentadal variability of the North Atlantic Ocean: Model simulated changes in transport, meridional heat flux and coastal sea level between 1955–1959 and 1970–1974. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 10 559–10 566.
Fillenbaum, E. R., T. L. Lee, W. E. Johns, and R. Zantopp, 1997: Meridional heat transport variability at 26.5°N in the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 153–174.
Greatbatch, R. J., A. F. Fanning, A. D. Goulding, and S. Levitus, 1991: A diagnosis of interpentadal circulation changes in the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 22 009–22 023.
Halkin, D., and T. Rossby, 1985: The structure and transport of the Gulf Stream at 73°W. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 1439–1452.
Hall, M. M., 1994: Synthesizing the Gulf Stream thermal structure from XBT data. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 2278–2287.
——, and H. L. Bryden, 1982: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport. Deep-Sea Res.,29, 339–359.
Hastenrath, S., 1980: Heat budget of tropical ocean and atmosphere. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,10, 159–170.
Hendry, R. M., 1988: A simple model of the Gulf Stream thermal structure with application to analysis of moored measurements in the presence of mooring motion. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,5, 328–339.
Hogg, N. G., 1986: On the correction of temperature and velocity time series for mooring motion. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,3, 204–214.
——, 1991: Mooring motion corrections revisited. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,8, 289–295.
Hsiung, J., 1985: Estimates of global oceanic meridional heat transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 1405–1413.
Isemer, H.-J., and L. Hasse, 1987: The Bunker Climate Atlas of the North Atlantic Ocean. Vol. 2. Air–Sea Interactions. Springer-Verlag, 252 pp.
Johns, E., D. Watts, and H. Rossby, 1989: A test of geostrophy in the Gulf Stream. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 3211–3222.
Kundu, P. K., 1990: Fluid Mechanics. Academic Press, 638 pp.
Lamb, P. J., 1981: Estimate of annual variation of the Atlantic Ocean heat transport. Nature,290, 766–768.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 173 pp.
——, and T. P. Boyer, 1994: World Ocean Atlas 1994. Vol. 4: Temperature, National Oceanographic Data Center, Ocean Climate Laboratory, 129 pp.
Luyten, J. R., 1977: Scales of motion in the deep Gulf Stream and across the Continental Rise. J. Mar. Res.,35(1), 49–73.
Mellor, G. L., C. R. Mechoso, and E. Keto, 1982: A diagnostic model of the general circulation of the Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,29, 1171–1192.
Molinari, R. L., E. Johns, and J. F. Festa, 1990: The annual cycle of meridional heat flux in the Atlantic Ocean at 26.5°N. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 476–482.
Montgomery, R. B., 1974: Comments on “Seasonal variability of the Florida current,” by Niiler and Richardson. J. Mar. Res.,32, 533–535.
Oort, A. H., and T. H. VonderHaar, 1976: On the observed annual cycle in the ocean–atmosphere heat balance over the Northern Hemisphere. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,6, 781–800.
Pickart, R. S., and D. R. Watts, 1990: Deep western boundary current variability at Cape Hatteras. J. Mar. Res.,48, 765–791.
Rago, T. A., and H. T. Rossby, 1987: Heat transport into the North Atlantic Ocean north of 32°N latitude. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 854–871.
Roemmich, D., 1980: Estimation of meridional heat flux in the North Atlantic by inverse method. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,10, 1972–1983.
——, and C. Wunsch, 1985: Two transatlantic sections: Meridional circulation and heat flux in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,32, 619–664.
Sato, O. T., 1997: Seasonal and low frequency variability in the meridional heat flux at 36°N in the North Atlantic. Ph.D. thesis, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, 148 pp.
——, and T. Rossby, 1995: Seasonal and low frequency variations in dynamic height anomaly and transport of the Gulf Stream. Deep-Sea Res.,42, 149–164.
Wall, F. J., 1986: Statistical Data Analysis Handbook. McGraw Hill, 285 pp.
Worthington, L. V., 1976: On the North Atlantic Circulation. Johns Hopkins Oceanographic Studies, No. 6, John Hopkins University Press, 110 pp.