This work was performed at the SACLANT Undersea Research Centre in La Spezia (Italy). The support of the Turkish Navy Department of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography (Istanbul) and the skill and willingness of the crews of NRV Alliance and TCG Çubuklu are greatly acknowledged. I would like to thank also A. Legner for his help with the drawings.
Brenner, S., 1989: Structure and evolution of warm core eddies in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. J. Geophys. Res.,94 (C9), 12 593–12 602.
Bretherton, F. P., R. E. Davis, and C. B. Fandry, 1976: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73. Deep-Sea Res.,23 (7), 559–582.
Feliks, Y., and S. Itzikowitz, 1987: Movement and geographical distribution of anticyclonic eddies in the eastern Levantine Basin. Deep-Sea Res.,34 (9), 1499–1508.
——, and M. Ghil, 1993: Downwelling-front instability and eddy formation in the Eastern Mediterranean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 61–78.
Georgopulos, D., A. Theocharis, and G. Zodiatis, 1989: Intermediate water formation in the Cretan Sea (South Aegean Sea). Oceanol. Acta,12 (4), 353–359.
Hecht, A., N. Pinardi, and A. R. Robinson, 1988: Currents, water masses, eddies and jets in the Mediterranean Levantine Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 1320–1353.
Lascaratos, A., and K. Nittis, 1998: A high-resolution three-dimensional numerical study of intermediate water formation in the Levantine Sea. J. Geophys. Res.,103 (C9), 18 497–18 511.
Lermusiaux, P., 1997: Error subspace data assimilation methods for ocean field estimation. Harvard Open Ocean Model Reports: Reports in Meteorology and Oceanography, 55, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 402 pp. [Available from Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138.].
Morcos, S. A., 1972: Sources of Mediterranean Intermediate Water in the Levantine Sea. Studies in Physical Oceanography, A. L. Gordon, Ed., Vol. 2, Gordon and Breach, 185–206.
Özsoy, E., and Ü. Ünlüata, 1993: Physical oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean. Symposium Mediterranean Seas 2000, N. F. R. Della Croce, Ed., Università di Genova, 207–253.
——, M. A. Latif, and Ü. Ünlüata, 1986: Mesoscale hydrographic characteristis in the northeastern Mediterranean—November 1985. UNESCO Rep. Mar. Sci.,44, 75–76.
——, A. Hecht, and Ü. Ünlüata, 1989: Circulation and hydrography of the Levantine Basin. Results of POEM coordinated experiments 1985–1986. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 22, Pergamon Press, 125–170.
——, ——, ——, S. Brenner, T. Oǧuz, J. Bishop, M. A. Latif, and Z. Rozentraub, 1991: A review of the Levantine Basin circulation and its variability during 1985–1988. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,15, 421–456.
Özturgut, E., 1976: The sources and spreading of Levantine Intermediate Water in the Eastern Mediterranean. SACLANTCEN Memo. SM-92, SACLANT ASW Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy, 45 pp.
POEM Group, 1992: General circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean. Earth Sci. Rev.,32, 285–309.
Robinson, A. R., and M. Golnaraghi, 1993: Circulation and dynamics of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res. II,40, 1207–1246.
——, and Coauthors, 1991: The eastern Mediterranean general circulation: Features, structure and variability. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans,15, 215–240.
Schmitt, R. W., Jr., 1979: Flux measurements on salt fingers at an interface. J. Mar. Res.,37, 419–436.
Stern, M. E., 1975: Ocean Circulation Physics. Academic Press, 246 pp.
Turner, J. S., 1973: Buoyancy Effects in Fluids. University Press, 367 pp.
Wu, P., and K. Haines, 1996: Modeling the dispersal of Levantine Intermediate Water and its role in the Mediterranean deep water formation. J. Geophys. Res.,101 (C3), 6591–6607.
Wüst, G., 1961: On the vertical circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. J. Geophys. Res.,66 (10), 3261–3271.
Zavatarelli, M., and G. L. Mellor, 1995: A numerical study of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 1384–1414.