This research was funded by Frontier Research System for Global Change. The author is grateful to H. Mitsudera and T. Yamagata for their constant encouragement and advice and to G. Meyers, J. P. McCreary, K. Hanawa, and S. K. Behera for many valuable discussions throughout this study. Thanks are also extended to D. Henderson and two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and, especially, to N. Hogg for his thoughtful suggestions on the earlier manuscript.
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