The authors wish to thank two anonymous reviewers who helped to significantly improve an earlier version of this paper. The first author wishes to thank the hospitality of the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York where most of this work was carried out.
Anderson, D. L. T, and A. E. Gill, 1975: Spin up of a stratified ocean with application to upwelling. Deep-Sea Res.,22, 583–596.
Cane, M. A., 1989: A mathematical note on Kawase’s study of the deep ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,19, 548–550.
——, and E. S. Sarachik, 1977: Forced baroclinic ocean motions II. The linear equatorial bounded case. J. Mar. Res.,35, 395–432.
Chelton, D. B., and M. G. Schlax, 1996: Global observations of oceanic Rossby waves. Science,272, 234–238.
Cipollini, P., D. Cromwell, M. S. Jones, G. D. Quartly, and P. G. Challenor, 1997: Concurrent altimeter and infrared observations of Rossby wave propagation near 34°N in the northeast Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett.,24, 889–892.
Dewar, W. K., 1998: On “too-fast” baroclinic planetary waves in the general circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,28, 1739–1758.
Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat induced tropical circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,106, 447–462.
——, 1982: Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.
Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 1093–1104.
Kawase, M., 1987: Establishment of deep ocean circulation driven by deep-water production. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 2294–2317.
Keffer, T., 1985: The ventilation of the World’s Oceans: Maps of the potential vorticity field. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 509–523.
Killworth, P. D., D. B. Chelton, and R. A. De Szoeke, 1997: The speed of observed and theoretical long extratropical planetary waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 1946–1966.
Le Traon, P.-Y., and J.-F. Minster, 1993: Sea level variability and semiannual Rossby waves in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 12 315–12 326.
Levitus, S., and T. Boyer, 1994: World Ocean Atlas 1994. Vol. 4: Temperature. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4..
McCreary, J. P., 1981: A linear stratified ocean model of the equatorial undercurrent. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,298A, 603–635.
Pedlosky, J., 1996: Vertical structure: Baroclinic quasi-geostraphic models. Ocean Circulation Theory, Springer-Verlag, 93–170.
Philander, S. G., 1990: El Niño, La Niña and the Southern Oscillation. Academic Press, 289 pp.
Phlips, P. J., 1987: A simple model of the wind-driven tropical ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 2003–2015.
Qiu, B., W. Miao, and P. Müller, 1997: Propagation and decay of forced and baroclinic Rossby waves in off-equatorial oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 2405–2417.
Rhines, P. B., and W. R. Young, 1982a: A theory for the wind-driven circulation. I: Mid-ocean gyres. J. Mar. Res.,40 (Suppl), 559–596.
——, and ——, 1982b: Homogenization of potential vorticity in planetary gyres. J. Fluid Mech.,122, 347–367.
Sverdrup, H. U., 1947: Wind driven currents in a baroclinic ocean with application to the equatorial currents of the eastern Pacific. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,33, 318–326.
White, W. B., G. A Meyers, J. R. Donguy, and S. E. Pazan, 1985: Short-term climate variability in the thermal structure of the Pacific Ocean during 1979–82. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 917–935.
Young, W. R., and P. B. Rhines, 1982: A theory for the wind-driven circulation. II: Gyres with western boundary layers. J. Mar. Res.40 (Suppl.), 849–872.
Zebiak, S. E., and M. A. Cane, 1987: A model El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 2262–2278.