We are grateful to Vladimir Makin for useful conversations during the course of this work, and also to Fabien Remy and Jean-Paul Giovanangeli for kindly providing us with their experimental data shown in Fig. 3. We would also like to thank one of the referees for pointing out an error in an early version of the manuscript. This work was supported by the EC Environment Programme under the ASPEN project, Contract ENV4-CT97-0460.
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