We thank John Snow for helpful discussions, and anonymous reviewers for constructive comments. We thank Chris Fairall for providing the SCOPE data, and Will Drennan for providing the SWADE data. This research was primarily supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NAG8-836, with partial support from the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM-9200534. Both grants were issued to Dr. Dayton Vincent at Purdue University. COAPS receives it base funding from the Secretary of Navy Grant from ONR to James J. O'Brien. Current funding for MAB is from the NASA JPL NSCAT and OVWST Projects.
Beljaars, A. C. M., , and A. A. M. Holtslag, 1991: Flux parameterization over land surfaces for atmospheric models. J. Appl. Meteor, 30 , 327–341.
Bourassa, M. A., 2000: Shear-stress model for the aqueous boundary layer near the air–sea interface. J. Geophys. Res, 105 , 1167–1176.
Bourassa, M. A., , D. G. Vincent, , and W. L. Wood, 1999: A flux parameterization including the effects of capillary waves and sea state. J. Atmos. Sci, 56 , 1123–1139.
Byushev, V. I., , and O. A. Kuznetsov, 1969: Stuktrunye kharakteristiki atmosfernoi turbulentnosti v privodnom sloe nad otkrytym okeanom. Izv. Akad. Navk USSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana, 5 , 327–332.
Chou, S-H., 1993: A comparison of airborne eddy correlation and bulk aerodynamic methods for ocean–air turbulent fluxes during cold-air outbreaks. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 64 , 75–100.
Donelan, M. A., 1990: Air–sea interactions. The Sea. Vol. 9: Air–Sea Interaction. B. LeMahaute and D. M. Hanes, Eds., Wiley and Sons, 239–292.
Donelan, M. A., , F. W. Dobson, , S. D. Smith, , and R. J. Anderson, 1993: On the dependence of sea-surface roughness on wave development. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 23 , 2143–2149.
Donelan, M. A., , W. M. Drennan, , and K. B. Katsaros, 1997: The air–sea momentum flux in conditions of wind sea and swell. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 27 , 2087–2099.
Fairall, C. W., , E. F. Bradley, , D. P. Rogers, , J. B. Edson, , and G. S. Young, 1996: Bulk parameterizations of air–sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean–Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res, 101 , 3747–3764.
Geernaert, G. L., , K. B. Katsaros, , and K. Richter, 1986: Variation of the drag coefficient and its dependence on sea state. J. Geophys. Res, 91 , 7667–7697.
Günther, H., and Coauthors,. 1992: Implementation of a third generation ocean wave model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. ECMWF Tech. Rep. 68, 34 pp.
Hsu, S. A., 1974: A dynamic roughness equation and its application to wind stress determination at the air–sea interface. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 4 , 116–120.
Huang, N. E., , C. Tung, , and S. R. Long, 1990: Wave spectra. The Sea. Vol. 9: Air–Sea Interaction, B. LeMahaute and D. M. Hanes, Eds., John Wiley and Sons, 197–238.
Janssen, P. A. E. M., 1982: Quasi-linear approximations for the spectrum of wind-generated water waves. J. Fluid Mech, 117 , 493–506.
Janssen, P. A. E. M., 1991: Quasi-linear theory of wind-wave generation applied to wave forecasting. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 21 , 1631–1642.
Jenkins, A. D., 1992: A quasi-linear eddy viscosity model for the flux of energy and momentum to wind waves, using conservation-law equations in a curvilinear coordinate system. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 22 , 843–858.
Jenkins, A. D., 1993: A simplified quasi-linear model for wave generation and air–sea momentum flux. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 23 , 2001–2018.
Kawai, S., 1981: Visualization of airflow separation over wind-wave crests under moderate wind. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 21 , 93–104.
Kitaigorodskii, S. A., 1961: Application of the theory of similarity to the analysis of wind generated wave motion as a stochastic process. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz., 1, 105–117; English translation, 1, 73–80.
Kitaigorodskii, S. A., 1970: The physics of air–sea interaction. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel, 237 pp.
Komen, G. L., , L. Cavaleri, , M. Donelan, , K. Hasselmann, , S. Hasselmann, , and P. A. E. M. Janssen, 1994: Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves. Cambridge University Press, 532 pp.
Kusaba, T., , and A. Masuda, 1988: The roughness height and drag law over the water surface based on the hypothesis of local equilibrium. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 44 , 200–214.
Large, W. G., , J. Morzel, , and G. B. Crawford, 1995: Accounting for surface wave distortion of the marine wind profile in low-level ocean storms wind measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 25 , 2959–2971.
Liu, W. T., , K. B. Katsaros, , and J. A. Businger, 1979: Bulk parameterization of air-sea exchanges of heat and water vapor including the molecular constraints at the interface. J. Atmos. Sci, 36 , 1722–1735.
Makin, V. K., 1980: Numerical simulation of the structure of the near water atmospheric layer in the presence of a developed sea. Oceanology, 20 , 139–142.
Makin, V. K., , and Ye G. Panchenko, 1986: Numerical studies of energy transfer from the wind to waves along a limited fetch. Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys, 22 , 163–165.
Nikuradse, J., 1933: Stromungsgesetze in rauben Rohren. Verin Deutscher Ingenieure Forschungsheft 361, 22 pp. English Translation, NACA Tech. Memo. 1292, National Advisory Commission for Aeronautics, 1950.
Perrie, W., , and B. Toulany, 1990: Fetch relations for wind-generated waves as a function of wind-stress scaling. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 20 , 1666–1681.
Pierson, W. J. Jr, , and L. Moskowitz, 1964: A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii. J. Geophys. Res, 69 , 5181–5190.
Smith, S. D., 1988: Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux, and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature. J. Geophys. Res, 93 , 15467–15472.
Smith, S. D., and Coauthors,. 1992: Sea surface wind stress and drag coefficients: The HEXOS results. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 60 , 109–142.
Toba, Y. N., 1972: Local balance in the air–sea boundary-layer processes. I. On the growth of wind waves. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 28 , 109–120.
Toba, Y. N., , N. Ida, , H. Kawamura, , N. Ebuchi, , and I. S. F. Jones, 1990: Wave dependence of sea-surface wind stress. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 20 , 705–721.
Ursell, F., 1956: Wave generation by wind. Surveys in Mechanics, G. K. Batchelor and R. M. Davies, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 216–249.
Yelland, M. J., , B. I. Moat, , P. K. Taylor, , R. W. Pascal, , J. Hutchings, , and V. C. Cornell, 1998: Wind stress measurements from the open ocean corrected for airflow distortion by the ship. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 28 , 1511–1526.