RXH was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant OCE-9616950 and by NOAA through Grant NA36GP0460 to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. QW was supported by the Advanced Visiting Scholar Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences through Grant KZCX2-205; QW acknowledges many constructive suggestions and help from Dr. Qinyu Liu.
Behringer, D. W., , M. Ji, , and A. Leetmaa, 1998: An improved coupled model for ENSO prediction and implication for ocean initialization. Part I: The ocean data assimilation system. Mon. Wea. Rev, 126 , 1013–1021.
Blanke, B., , M. Arhan, , G. Madec, , and S. Roche, 1999: Warm water paths in the equatorial Atlantic as diagnosed with a general circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 29 , 2753–2768.
Da Silva, A. M., , C. C. Young, , and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994. Vol. 1: Algorithms and Procedures, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 83 pp.
Fine, R. A., , W. H. Peterson, , and H. G. Ostlund, 1987: The penetration of tritium into the tropical Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 17 , 553–564.
Fratantoni, D. M., , W. E. Johns, , T. L. Townsend, , and H. E. Hurlburt, 2000: Low-latitude circulation and mass transport pathways in a model of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 30 , 1944–1966.
Gu, D., , and S. G. Philander, 1997: Interdecadal climate fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the Tropics and extratropics. Science, 275 , 805–807.
Harrison, D. E., 1989: On climatological mean wind stress and wind stress curl fields over the World Ocean. J. Climate, 2 , 57–70.
Hellerman, S., , and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 13 , 1093–1104.
Huang, B., , and Z. Liu, 1999: Pacific subtropical–tropical thermocline water exchange in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction ocean model. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , 11065–11076.
Huang, R. X., , and J. Pedlosky, 2000: Climate variability of the equatorial thermocline inferred from a two-moving layer model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 30 , 2610–2626.
Ji, M., , A. Leetmaa, , and J. Derber, 1995: An ocean analysis system for seasonal to interannual climate studies. Mon. Wea. Rev, 123 , 460–481.
Johnson, G. C., , and M. J. McPhaden, 1999: Interior pycnocline flow from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 29 , 3073–3089.
Legler, D. M., 1988: Tropical Pacific Wind Stress Analysis for TOGA, IOC Time Series of Ocean Measurements. IOC Technical Series 33, Vol. 4, UNESCO.
Liu, Z., 1994: A simple model of the mass exchange between the subtropical and tropical ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 24 , 1153–1165.
Liu, Z., , and B. Huang, 1998: Why is there a tritium maximum in the central equatorial Pacific thermocline? J. Phys. Oceanogr, 28 , 1527–1533.
Lu, P., , and J. P. McCreary, 1995: Influence of the ITCZ on the flow of the thermocline water from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 25 , 3076–3088.
McCreary, J. P., , and P. Lu, 1994: Interaction between the subtropical and equatorial ocean circulation: The subtropical cell. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 24 , 466–497.
McPhaden, M. J., , and R. A. Fine, 1988: A dynamical interpretation of the tritium maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 18 , 1454–1457.
Meyers, S. D., , J. J. O'Brien, , and E. Thelin, 1999: Reconstruction of monthly SST in the Tropical Pacific Ocean during 1968–1993 using adaptive climate basis functions. Mon. Wea. Rev, 127 , 1599–1612.
Reynolds, R. W., , and T. M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analysis using optimum interpolation. J. Climate, 7 , 929–948.
Rothstein, L. M., , R-H. Zhang, , A. J. Busalacchi, , and D. Chen, 1998:: A numerical simulation of the mean water pathways in the subtropical and tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 28 , 322–343.
Servain, J., , M. Seva, , S. Lukas, , and G. Rougier, 1987: Climate atlas of the tropical Atlantic wind stress and sea surface temperature: 1980–1984. Ocean Air Inter. J, 1 , 109–182.
Trenberth, K., , J. Olson, , and W. Large, 1989: A global ocean wind stress climatology based on ECMWF analyses. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Tech. Rep. NCAR/TN-338+STR, 93 pp.
Wijffles, S., 1993: Exchanges between hemisphere and gyres: A direct approach to the mean circulation of the equatorial Pacific. Ph.D. thesis, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 267 pp.
Worley, S., 1996: NCEP ODAS tropical Pacific Ocean analysis. Data Supporting Section Scientific Computing Division, NCAR, DS277.1.