We thank the officers, scientists, and crew of RRS James Clark Ross for their assistance during the fieldwork phase of this work. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their helpful comments. We are grateful to Alex Orsi for providing the front locations adapted in Fig. 1, and to Michel Arhan for useful advice. WOCE section A23 was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) through Grant GST/02/575. ALBATROSS was funded by NERC through Grant GR3/11654. MPM was funded via NERC Fellowship GT5/99/MS/17.
Arhan, M., K. J. Heywood, and B. A. King, 1999: The deep waters from the Southern Ocean at the entry to the Argentine Basin. Deep-Sea Res, 46 , 475–499.
Bacon, S., H. M. Snaith, and M. J. Yelland, 2000: An evaluation of some recent batches of IAPSO standard seawater. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 17 , 854–861.
Coles, V. J., M. S. McCartney, D. B. Olson, and W. M. Smethie, 1996: Changes in Antarctic Bottom Water properties in the western South Atlantic in the late 1980s. J. Geophys. Res, 101 , (C4),. 8957–8970.
Dickson, A. G., 1994: Determination of dissolved oxygen in seawater by Winkler titration. World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, Operations and Methods WMPO 91-1, 3–11.
Foster, T. D., and E. C. Carmack, 1976: Frontal zone mixing and Antarctic Bottom Water formation in the southern Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res, 23 , 301–317.
Garcia, M., O. Lopez, J. Puigdefabregas, and J. Sospreda, 1997: Repeated observations of the ACC on WOCE SR1b. Int. WOCE Newslett, 29 , 16–18.
Gordon, A. L., 1966: Potential temperature, oxygen and circulation of bottom water in the southern ocean. Deep-Sea Res, 13 , 1125–1138.
Heywood, K. J., and B. A. King, 1996: WOCE section A23 cruise report. UEA Rep. Series 1, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, 75 pp.
Heywood, K. J., and D. P. Stevens, 2000: ALBATROSS cruise report. UEA Rep. Series 6, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, 61 pp.
Hogg, N. G., and W. Zenk, 1997: Long-period changes in the bottom water flowing through Vema Channel. J. Geophys. Res, 102 , (C7),. 15 639–15 646.
Kirkwood, D. S., 1995: Nutrients: Practical notes on their determination in seawater. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences Rep. 17, International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25 pp.
Locarnini, R. A., T. Whitworth III, and W. D. Nowlin Jr., 1993: The importance of the Scotia Sea on the outflow of Weddell Sea Deep Water. J. Mar. Res, 51 , 135–153.
Martinson, D. G., P. D. Killworth, and A. L. Gordon, 1982: A convective model for the Weddell Polynya. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 11 , 466–488.
Meredith, M. P., K. E. Grose, E. L. McDonagh, K. J. Heywood, R. D. Frew, and P. F. Dennis, 1999: Distribution of oxygen isotopes in the water masses of Drake Passage and the South Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , (C9),. 20 949–20 962.
Meredith, M. P., R. A. Locarnini, K. A. Van Scoy, A. J. Watson, K. J. Heywood, and B. A. King, 2000: On the sources of Weddell Gyre Antarctic Bottom Water. J. Geophys. Res, 105 , (C1),. 1093–1104.
Orsi, A. H., W. D. Nowlin Jr., and T. Whitworth III, 1993: On the circulation and stratification of the Weddell Gyre. Deep-Sea Res, 40 , 169–203.
Orsi, A. H., T. Whitworth III, and W. D. Nowlin Jr., 1995: On the meridional extent and fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Res, 42 , 641–673.
Peterson, R. G., and T. Whitworth III, 1989: The subantarctic and polar fronts in relation to deep water masses through the southwestern Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res, 94 , (C8),. 10 817–10 838.
Rubython, K. E., K. J. Heywood, and J. M. Vassie, 2001: Interannual variability of bottom temperatures in Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res.,. 106 , (C2),. 2779–2793.
Sievers, H. A., and W. D. Nowlin Jr., 1984: The stratification and water masses at Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res, 89 , (C6),. 10 489–10 514.
Smith, W. H. F., and D. T. Sandwell, 1997: Global sea floor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277 , 1956–1962.
Thorpe, S. E., K. J. Heywood, and M. A. Brandon, 1999: Interannual variability in the Southern Ocean fronts near South Georgia and its effects on krill transport. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 80 , 197.
Whitworth, T. I. I. I., W. D. Nowlin Jr., A. H. Orsi, R. A. Locarnini, and S. G. Smith, 1994: Weddell Sea shelf water in the Bransfield Strait and Weddell–Scotia Confluence. Deep-Sea Res, 41 , 629–641.
Williams, P. J. L., and N. W. Jenkinson, 1982: A transportable microprocessor-controlled precise Winkler titration suitable for field station and shipboard use. Limnol. Oceanogr, 25 , 576–584.