Funding for this research came from the Department of Defense under a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship (SRJ), from the National Science Foundation, the American Automobile Manufacturers Association, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company through the TEPCO/MIT Environmental Research Program. The computational resources for this work were provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is supported by the National Science Foundation. Special thanks are owed to Robin Tokmakian and Bert Semtner from the Naval Postgraduate School, who generously provided their numerical model output. We are also grateful to Peter Gent, Nelson Hogg, Mike Spall, Detlef Stammer, and Carl Wunsch for helpful discussions. We thank the anonymous reviewers whose comments led to considerable improvement of the manuscript.
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