Dr. Fumiaki Kobashi generously provided us with the dynamic topography data used in Fig. 1. We thank Drs. Pierre Flament, Masami Nonaka, Shang-Ping Xie, and Zuojun Yu for their conversations during the course of this work. In-depth discussions with Drs. Xin Huang and Joe Pedlosky provided valuable insights and prompted substantial improvements, for which we are deeply grateful. Detailed comments made by Dr. Lynne Talley and the anonymous reviewers helped to improve several parts of an early version of the manuscript. This study was supported by NOAA through Cooperative Agreement NA37RJ0199.
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