The ECMWF model data were provided by the European Centre via the NCAR data archives. Access to the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data was provided by the Climate Diagnostics Center of NOAA. The field component of this study was funded by the Office of Naval Research as part of the Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment. The studies performed by the IfM Kiel were funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Sonderforschungsbereich 460. The authors would like to thank P. Viterbo, F. Lalaurette, B. Kistler, W. Ebisuzaki, and H.-L. Pan for information on the ECMWF and NCEP model setups, in addition to J. King, A. Rodger, P. Viterbo, S. Josey, and the reviewers for comments and discussions that have helped to improve this paper.
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