We thank J. Dufour, J. Sherman, J. Valdes, R. Tavares, and B. Guest for technical development and preparation of the floats, D. Newton and C. Wooding for help with data processing, and the many scientists who deployed the floats at sea. NCEP reanalysis data is provided by the NOAA/CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colorado, from their Web site at http://www.cdc.noaa.gov. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.
Clarke, R. A., , and J-C. Gascard, 1983: The formation of Labrador Sea Water. Part I: Large-scale processes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 1764–1778.
Davis, R. E., , J. T. Sherman, , and J. Dufour, 2001: Profiling ALACEs and other advances in autonomous subsurface floats. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18 , 982–993.
Dickson, R., , J. Lazier, , J. Meincke, , P. Rhines, , and J. Swift, 1996: Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 38, Pergamon, 241–295.
Gascard, J-C., , and R. A. Clarke, 1983: The formation of Labrador Sea Water. Part II: Mesoscale and smaller-scale processes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 1779–1797.
Haine, T. W. N., , and J. Marshall, 1998: Gravitational, symmetric, and baroclinic instability of the ocean mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 634–658.
Harcourt, R. R., 1999: Numerical simulation of deep convection and the response of drifters in the Labrador Sea. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz, 370 pp.
Jones, H., , and J. Marshall, 1993: Convection with rotation in a neutral ocean: A study of open-ocean deep convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 1009–1039.
Lavender, K. L., , R. E. Davis, , and W. B. Owens, 2000: Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger Seas by direct velocity measurements. Nature, 407 , 66–69.
Lilly, J. M., , P. B. Rhines, , M. Visbeck, , R. Davis, , J. R. N. Lazier, , F. Schott, , and D. Farmer, 1999: Observing deep convection in the Labrador Sea during winter 1994/95. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 2065–2098.
Renfrew, I. A., , G. W. K. Moore, , P. S. Guest, , and K. Bumke, 2002: A comparison of surface layer and surface turbulent flux observations over the Labrador Sea with ECMWF analyses and NCEP Reanalyses. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 383–400.
Schott, F., , and K. D. Leaman, 1991: Observations with moored acoustic Doppler current profilers in the convection regime in the Golfe du Lion. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21 , 558–574.
Schott, F., , M. Visbeck, , and J. Fischer, . 1993: Observations of vertical currents and convection in the central Greenland Sea during the winter of 1988–1989. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 14401–14421.
Schott, F., , M. Visbeck, , U. Send, , J. Fischer, , L. Stramma, , and Y. Desaubies, . 1996: Observations of deep convection in the Gulf of Lions, northern Mediterranean, during the winter of 1991/92. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 505–524.
Stommel, H., 1972: Deep winter-time convection in the western Mediterranean Sea. Studies in Physical Oceanography: A Tribute to Georg Wüst on His 80th Birthday, A. L. Gordon, Ed., Vol. 2, Gordon and Breach, 207–218.
Straneo, F., , M. Kawase, , and S. C. Riser, 2002: Idealized models of slantwise convection in a baroclinic flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 558–572.