Financial support for this research was provided by the NOAA Atlantic Climate Change Program, the National Science Foundation (Physical Oceanography section), and the Office of Naval Research. The authors thank Robert Pickart for providing the hydrographic data from the February 1997 R/V Knorr cruise and the Bedford Institute of Oceanography for providing the other hydrographic sections. Valuable advice was received from Jonathan Lilly, Frederic Vivier, Abdellah Cherkaoui, and two anonymous reviewers.
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