This research was supported by Frontier Research System for Global Change through its sponsorship of the International Pacific Research Center and by the National Science Foundation through Grant OCE00-95906. TQ is grateful to J. P. McCreary, H. Mitsudera, T. Jensen, and T. Miyama for many valuable discussions. Thanks are also extended to G. Meyers, T. Yamagata, and J. Church for useful communication on the present topic, and to L. Talley and two anonymous reviewers from useful comments on the earlier manuscript.
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