We are grateful for the constructive and insightful comments provided by Dr. Jeffery R. Scott and three anonymous reviewers, which lead to significant improvements of the original manuscript. One reviewer generously outlined the discussion on internal wave dissipation and vertical diffusivity in section 2. This work was supported by the Swedish Science Research Council and by MISTRA through the SWECLIM programme. Further, we thank the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, which financed the Linux cluster “Otto” on which the simulations were performed, and the staff at the National Center for Super Computing in Linköping for their technical assistance.
Broecker, W. S., 1997: Thermohaline circulation, the achilles heel of our climate system: Will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science, 278 , 1582–1588.
Cummins, P. F., , G. Holloway, , and A. E. Gargett, 1990: Sensitivity of the GFDL ocean general circulation model to a parameterization of vertical diffusion. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20 , 817–830.
Emanuel, K., 2001: Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D14) 14771–14781.
Hirst, A. C., , and W. J. Cai, 1994: Sensitivity of a World Ocean GCM to changes in subsurface mixing parameterizations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 1256–1279.
Hirst, A. C., , D. R. Jackett, , and T. J. McDougall, 1996: The meridional overturning cells of a World Ocean model in neutral coordinates. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 775–791.
Karsten, R., , H. Jones, , and J. Marshall, 2002: The role of eddy transfer in setting the stratification and transport of a circumpolar current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 39–54.
Ledwell, J. R., , E. T. Montgomery, , K. L. Polzin, , L. C. Laurent, , R. W. Schmitt, , and J. M. Toole, 2000: Evidence for enhanced mixing over rough topography in the abyssal ocean. Nature, 403 , 179–182.
Marotzke, J., 2000: Abrupt climate change and the thermohaline circulation: Mechanisms and predictability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97 , 1347–1350.
Marshall, J., , C. Hill, , L. Perleman, , and A. Adcroft, 1997: Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and non-hydrostatic ocean modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (C3) 5733–5752.
Marshall, J., , D. Jamous, , and J. Nilsson, 1999: Reconciling thermodynamic and dynamic methods of computation of water-mass transformation rates. Deep-Sea Res., 46 , 545–572.
Park, Y-G., , and K. Bryan, 2000: Comparison of thermally driven circulation from a depth-coordinate model and an isopycnal model. Part I: Scaling-law sensitivity to vertical diffusivity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 590–605.
Polzin, K. L., , J. M. Toole, , and R. W. Schmitt, 1995: Finescale parameterizations of turbulent dissipation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 306–328.
Polzin, K. L., , J. M. Toole, , J. R. Ledwell, , and R. W. Schmitt, 1997: Spatial variability of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean. Science, 276 , 93–96.
Samelson, R. M., , and G. K. Vallis, 1997: Large-scale circulation with small diapycnal diffusion: The two-thermocline limit. J. Mar. Res., 55 , 223–275.
Sjöberg, B., , and A. Stigebrandt, 1992: Computations of the geographical distribution of the energy flux to mixing processes via internal tides and the associated vertical circulation in the ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 39 , 269–291.
Toole, J., , and T. J. McDougall, 2001: Stirring and mixing in the ocean interior. Ocean Circulation and Climate, G. Siedler, J. Church, and J. Gould, Eds., Academic Press, 337–356.
Vallis, G. K., 2000: Large-scale circulation and production of stratification: Effects of wind, geometry, and diffusion. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 933–954.
Welander, P., 1986: Thermohaline effects in the ocean circulation and related simple models. Large-Scale Transport Processes in the Oceans and Atmosphere, J. Willebrand and D. L. T. Anderson, Eds., D. Reidel, 163–200.
Weyl, P. K., 1968: The role of the oceans in climate change: A theory of the ice ages. Causes of Climatic Change, Meteor. Monogr., No. 30, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 37–62.