The authors are grateful to the University of Victoria, Andrew Weaver, and Michael Eby for supplying us with the Earth System Climate Model and invaluable technical and scientific advice regarding its use. They are also gratefully acknowledged for hosting a visit by Willem Sijp to the University of Victoria in May–June 2002. We also thank Oleg Saenko and Matthew Huber for valuable feedback and suggestions regarding the content of this paper. This research was supported by the Australian Research Council.
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