This research was supported by National Science Foundation through Grant OCE00-95906 and by Frontier Research System for Global Change through its sponsorship of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC). Author TQ is grateful to J. P. McCreary, H. Mitsudera, T. Jensen, T. Miyama, Y.‐Y. Kim, and H.-W. Kang for many valuable discussions and to G. Meyers, T. Yamagata, and R. Lukas for useful communication on the present topic. Thanks are also extended to L. Talley and two anonymous reviewers for useful comments and thoughtful suggestions. The hydrographic data from the repeated section were kindly provided by the State Oceanic Administration Data Center of China.
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