This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Grant NAG5-12756. Author TQ was also supported by the Frontier Research System for Global Change through its sponsorship of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), and GM was also supported by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). Both authors are grateful to J. Potemra and H. Mitsudera for valuable discussions. Author TQ is also grateful to J. Toole for a useful conversation on the methods of analysis and to T. Yamagata and E. Lindstrom for useful communication on the present topic.
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