This study formed a part of the Ph.D. dissertation of EDL at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Funding was provided by NASA (NAG5-9788), NSF (OCE00-82543), ONR (N00014-99-1-0045), DOE (DE-FG03-01ER63255), and NOAA (NA17RJ1231 through ECPC and CORC). The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies. Supercomputing resources were provided by the San Diego Supercomputer Center and NASA. We thank our colleagues at Rutgers University (Hernan Arango and Dale Haidvogel) and UCLA (Sasha Shchepetkin and Patrick Marchesiello) for generously allowing use of their computer models and aiding in many aspects of this work. We also thank our CalCOFI colleagues (Teri Chereskin, Ron Lynn, and Tom Hayward) for providing data in accessible form; Dan Cayan for providing the updated surface heat fluxes from his COADS analysis; Peter Niiler, Rick Salmon, and Doug Neilson for many important discussions; and the anonymous reviewer for the comments on the manuscript.
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