The Red Sea Outflow Experiment was funded by the National Science Foundation under Contracts OCE-9819506 and OCE-9818464. Additional support was provided to the “Climate Process Team Gravity Currents” under OCE-0336799. The good work of the masters and crews of the R/V Knorr and the R/V Maurice Ewing is gratefully acknowledged. Numerous members of the science parties on the REDSOX-1 and REDSOX-2 cruises greatly contributed to the work reported herein. We are especially indebted to RSMAS technicians Mark Graham and Robert Jones; to Rainer Zantopp, who processed the CTD data; and to Silvia Matt, who assisted with reducing of the LADCP data. In developing routines for LADCP processing we benefited greatly from material provided by, and discussions with Martin Visbeck. The bathymetric data from the Gulf of Aden, including data from the L’Atalante generously provided by Philippe Huchon, were worked up by Stephen Swift. We sincerely thank both of them. We greatly benefited from further hints by and discussions with Eric Firing, Tamay Özgökmen, Jim Price, and James Girton. As usual, Linda Peters was the able coach on style and diction. Clearance to work in the territorial waters of Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen is gratefully acknowledged.
Baringer, M., and J. F. Price, 1997b: Momentum and energy balance of the Mediterranean outflow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 1678–1692.
Beal, L. M., A. Ffield, and A. L. Gordon, 2000: The spreading of Red Sea overflow waters in the Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 8549–8564.
Bower, A. S., H. D. Hunt, and J. F. Price, 2000: Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 6387–6414.
Bower, A. S., D. M. Fratantoni, W. E. Johns, and H. Peters, 2002: Gulf of Aden eddies and their impact on Red Sea water. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .2025, doi:10.1029/2002GL015342.
Girton, J. B., and T. B. Sanford, 2003: Descent and modification of the overflow plume in the Denmark Strait. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 1351–1364.
Hébert, H., C. Deplus, P. Huchon, K. Khanbari, and L. Audin, 2001: Lithosphere structure of a nascent spreading ridge inferred from gravity data: The western Gulf of Aden. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , B11,. 26345–26363.
Jarosz, E., 2001: Tidal dynamics in the Bab el Mandeb Strait. Ph.D. thesis, Louisiana State University, 153 pp.
Johnson, G. C., R. Lueck, and T. B. Sanford, 1994a: Stress on the Mediterranean outflow plume: Part II. Turbulent dissipation and shear measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 2084–2092.
Johnson, G. C., T. B. Sanford, and M. O. Baringer, 1994b: Stress on the Mediterranean outflow plume: Part I. Velocity and water property measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 2072–2083.
Murray, S. P., and W. E. Johns, 1997: Direct observations of seasonal exchange through the Bab el Mandeb Strait. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 2557–2560.
Özgökmen, T. M., W. E. Johns, H. Peters, and S. Matt, 2003: Turbulent mixing in the Red Sea outflow plume from a high-resolution nonhydrostatic model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 1846–1869.
Peters, G. C., and M. O. Johns, 2005: Mixing and entrainment in the Red Sea outflow plume. Part II: Turbulence characteristics. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 584–600.
Peters, H., M. C. Gregg, and T. B. Sanford, 1995: Detail and scaling of turbulent overturns in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 18349–18368.
Polzin, K., E. Kunze, J. Hummon, and E. Firing, 2002: The finescale response of lowered ADCP velocity profiles. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19 , 205–224.
Price, J. F., and M. O’Neil Baringer, 1994: Outflows and deep water production by marginal seas. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 33, Pergamon, 161–200.
Rochford, D. J., 1964: Salinity maxima in the upper 1000 metres of the north Indian Ocean. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 15 , 1–24.
Siedler, G., 1968: Schichtungs und Bewegungsverhältnisse am Südausgang des Roten Meeres. “Meteor” Forsch.-Ergebn. Reihe, A , (4),. 1–67.
Turner, J. S., 1986: Turbulent entrainment: The development of the entrainment assumption, and its applications to geophysical flows. J. Fluid Mech., 173 , 431–471.