The sonar systems were designed, constructed, and deployed by Eric Slater, Lloyd Green, Mike Goldin, and Chris Neely at the Marine Physical Laboratory of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The author thanks Jay Ardai, John Bitters, Andreas Heiberg, Dean Stewart, Roger Anderson, and the crew of the CCG des Groseilliers for their support during SHEBA. Comments of the two reviewers were greatly appreciated. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.
D'Asaro, E. A., 1989: The decay of wind-forced mixed layer inertial oscillations due to the β effect. J. Geophys. Res., 94 , 2045–2056.
D'Asaro, E. A., 1991: A strategy for investigating and modeling internal wave sources and sinks. Dynamics of Oceanic Internal Gravity Waves: Proc. ’Aha Huliko’a Hawaiian Winter Workshop, Honolulu, HI, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 451–465.
D'Asaro, E. A., and H. Perkins, 1984: A near-inertial internal wave spectrum for the Sargasso Sea in late summer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14 , 489–505.
D'Asaro, E. A., and M. D. Morehead, 1991: Internal waves and velocity fine structure in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 12725–12738.
Eriksen, C. C., 1985: Implications of ocean bottom reflection for internal wave spectra and mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15 , 1145–1156.
Garrett, C., 2001: What is the near-inertial band and why is it different from the rest of the internal wave spectrum? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 962–971.
Garrett, C., and D. Gilbert, 1988: Estimates of vertical mixing by internal waves reflected off a sloping bottom. Small-Scale Mixing and Turbulence in the Ocean, J. C. J. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart, Eds. Elsevier Science, 405–424.
Halle, C., and R. Pinkel, 2003: Internal wave variability in the Beaufort Sea during the winter of 1993/94. J. Geophys. Res, 108 .3210, doi:10.1029/2000JC000703.
Leaman, K. D., and T. B. Sanford, 1975: Vertical energy propagation of inertial waves: A vector spectral analysis of velocity profiles. J. Geophys. Res., 80 , 1975–1978.
Levine, M. D., 1990: Internal waves under the Arctic pack ice during the Arctic internal wave experiment: The coherence structure. J. Geophys. Res., 95 , C5,. 7347–7357.
Levine, M. D., C. A. Paulson, and J. H. Morison, 1985: Internal waves in the Arctic Ocean: Comparison with lower latitude observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15 , 800–809.
McPhee, M. G., T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, 1998: Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: Is perennial sea-ice disappearing? Geophys. Res. Lett., 23 , 1729–1732.
Merrifield, M., and R. Pinkel, 1996: Inertial currents in the Beaufort Sea: Observations of response to wind and shear. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , C3,. 6577–6590.
Morison, J., 1986: Internal waves in the Arctic Ocean: A review. The Geophysics of Sea Ice, N. Untersteiner, Ed., Plenum Press, 1163–1183.
Morison, J., C. E. Long, and M. D. Levine, 1985: Internal wave dissipation under sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 90 , C6,. 11959–11966.
Muller, P., E. A. D’Asaro, and G. Holloway, 1991: Internal gravity waves and mixing. Dynamics of Oceanic Internal Gravity Waves: Proc. ’Aha Huliko’a Hawaiian Winter Workshop, Honolulu, HI, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 499–502.
Phillips, O. M., 1966: : The Dynamics of the Upper Ocean. Cambridge University Press, 261 pp.
Pinkel, R., 1984: Doppler sonar observations of internal waves: The wavenumber frequency spectrum. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14 , 1249–1270.
Pinkel, R., and J. A. Smith, 1992: Repeat-sequence coding for improved performance of Doppler sonar and sodar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 9 , 149–163.
Timmermans, M. L., C. J. R. Garrett, and E. Carmack, 2003: The thermohaline structure and evolution of the deep waters in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.,, 50A , 1305–1321.
Young, W. R., P. B. Rhines, and C. Garrett, 1982: Shear flow dispersion, internal waves and horizontal mixing in the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12 , 515–527.