We thank Peter Rhines, LuAnne Thompson, Parker MacCready, and Jonathan Lilly, who improved this manuscript with helpful comments and fruitful discussions. We also thank the members of the Woods Hole SeaSoar Group—Frank Bahr, Jerry Dean, Paul Fucile, Allan Gordon, and Craig Marquette, whose efforts made the Japan/East Sea observations possible. Captain Christopher Curl and the crew of the R/V Revelle provided professional, enthusiastic assistance through difficult wintertime operating conditions. They were a pleasure to work with, and we are grateful for both their exceptional skill and good nature. L. T. was supported under NSF grants OCE-00-95971 and OCE-03-51191. The Japan/East Sea program was supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-98-1-0370 (CML).
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