We thank the NCAR Oceanography Section for making the model output available to us. We also thank Dr. Patrick Cummins for providing the observed time series of winter pycnocline depth at Ocean Weather Station P, as well as useful comments on the manuscript, and the GLOBEC program for the long-term measurements at station GAK1. Doctor E. Firing and an anonymous reviewer have offered very valuable comments and suggestions that have greatly improved the manuscript. Author AC was supported by the NOAA/CIFAR program, and AJM was supported by NOAA/CIFAR (NA17RJ1231), NSF (OCE00-82543), and DOE (DE-FG03-01ER63255). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies.
Chelton, D B., and R E. Davis, 1982: Monthly mean sea-level variability along the west coast of North America. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12 , 757–784.
Chelton, D B., R A. de Szoeke, M G. Schlax, K. El Naggar, and N. Siwertz, 1998: Geographical variability of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 433–460.
Crawford, W R., J Y. Cherniawsky, and M. G. G. Foreman, 2000: Multi-year meanders and eddies in the Alaskan Stream as observed by TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 1025–1028.
Cummins, P F., and G. S. E. Lagerloef, 2002: Low-frequency pycnocline depth variability at ocean weather station P in the northeast Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 3207–3215.
Cummins, P F., and G. S. E. Lagerloef, 2004: Wind-driven interannual variability over the northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I, 51 , 2105–2121.
Deser, C., M A. Alexander, and M S. Timlin, 1999: Evidence for a wind-driven intensification of the Kuroshio Current Extension from the 1970s to the 1980s. J. Climate, 12 , 1697–1706.
Doney, S C., S. Yeager, G. Danabasoglu, W G. Large, and J C. McWilliams, 2003: Modeling global oceanic interannual variability (1958–1997): Simulation design and model-data evaluation. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-452+STR.
Enfield, D B., and J S. Allen, 1980: On the structure and dynamics of monthly mean sea level anomalies along the Pacific coast of North and South America. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10 , 557–578.
Freeland, H J., K. Denman, C S. Wong, F. Whitney, and R. Jacques, 1997: Evidence of change in the winter mixed layer in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 44 , 2117–2129.
Fu, L-L., and D B. Chelton, 2001: Large-scale ocean circulation and variability. Satellite Altimetry and Earth Sciences, L.-L. Fu and A. Cavenave, Eds., Academic Press, 133–169.
Fu, L-L., and B. Qiu, 2002: Low-frequency variability of the North Pacific Ocean: The roles of boundary- and wind-driven baroclinic Rossby waves. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .3220, doi:10.1029/2001JC001131.
Gargett, A E., 1997: The optimal stability ‘window’: A mechanism underlying decadal fluctuations in North Pacific salmon stocks? Fish. Oceanogr., 6 , 109–117.
Gent, P R., F O. Bryan, G. Danabasoglu, S C. Doney, W R. Holland, W G. Large, and J C. McWilliams, 1998: The NCAR Climate System Model global ocean component. J. Climate, 11 , 1287–1306.
Hsieh, W W., M K. Davey, and R C. Wajsowicz, 1983: The free Kelvin wave in finite-difference numerical models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 1383–1397.
Kelly, K A., M J. Caruso, and J A. Austin, 1993: Wind-forced variations in sea surface height in the northeast Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 2392–2411.
Killworth, P D., D B. Chelton, and R A. de Szoeke, 1997: The speed of observed and theoretical long extratropical planetary waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 1946–1966.
Large, W G., J C. McWilliams, and S C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys., 32 , 363–403.
Large, W G., G. Danabasoglu, and S C. Doney, 1997: Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary-layer mixing in a global ocean model: Annual mean climatology. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 2418–2447.
Large, W G., J C. McWilliams, P R. Gent, and F O. Bryan, 2001: Equatorial circulation of a global ocean climate model with anisotropic horizontal viscosity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 518–536.
Mantua, N J., S R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J M. Wallace, and R. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 1069–1079.
Miller, A J., D R. Cayan, T P. Barnett, N E. Graham, and J M. Oberhuber, 1994: Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: Model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies. Climate Dyn., 9 , 287–302.
Musgrave, D L., T J. Weingartner, and T C. Royer, 1992: Circulation and hydrography of the northwestern Gulf of Alaska. Deep-Sea Res., 39 , 1499–1519.
Polovina, J J., G T. Mitchum, and G T. Evans, 1995: Decadal and basin-scale variation in mixed-layer depth and the impact on biological production in the central and North Pacific, 1960–88. Deep-Sea Res., 42 , 1701–1716.
Qiu, B., 2002: Large-scale variability in the midlatitude subtropical and subpolar North Pacific Ocean: Observations and causes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 353–375.
Reed, R K., R D. Muench, and J D. Schumacher, 1980: On the baroclinic transport of the Alaskan Stream near Kodiak Island. Deep-Sea Res., 27A , 509–523.
Royer, T C., 1981: Baroclinic transport in the Gulf of Alaska. Part I: Seasonal variations of the Alaska Current. J. Mar. Res., 39 , 239–250.
Sverdrup, H U., 1947: Wind-driven currents in a baroclinic ocean with application to the equatorial currents of the eastern Pacific. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 33 , 318–326.