We are grateful to Meghan Cronin and Alan Plumb for sharing their insights with us and pointing out the existing literature on this topic. We also appreciate the detailed analysis of J. McCreary to pinpoint the shortcomings of JM and thank M. Spall for his patience as editor.
Andrews, D G., and M E. McIntyre, 1976: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen–Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 2031–2048.
Cronin, M., 1996: Eddy–mean flow interaction in the Gulf Stream at 68W. Part II: Eddy forcing on the time-mean flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 2132–2151.
Fox-Kemper, B., R. Ferrari, and J. Pedlosky, 2003: On the indeterminacy of rotational and divergent eddy fluxes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 478–483.
Hoskins, B J., I N. James, and G H. White, 1983: The shape, propagation and mean-flow interaction of large-scale weather systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 1595–1612.
Hua, B L., F. Marin, and R. Schopp, 2003: Three-dimensional dynamics of the subsurface countercurrents and equatorial thermostad. Part I: Formulation of the problem and generic properties. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 2588–2609.
Jochum, M., and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, 2004: A new theory for the generation of the equatorial subsurface countercurrents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 755–771.
Marin, F., B L. Hua, and R. Schopp, 2005: Comments on “A new theory for the generation of the equatorial subsurface countercurrents.”. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 1494–1496.
Plumb, R A., 1986: Three-dimensional propagation of transient quasi-geostrophic eddies and its relationship with the eddy forcing of the mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 1657–1678.