Discussions with G. L. Mellor, B. Chapron, T. Elfouhaily, J. Groeneweg, and N. Rascle, as well as suggestions from anonymous reviewers, contributed significantly to the present work. The authors acknowledge support from the Aurora Mobility Programme for Research Collaboration between France and Norway, funded by the Research Council of Norway (NFR) and The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Jenkins was supported by NFR Project 155923/700. This is publication A 103 from the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research.
Agrawal, Y. C., , E. A. Terray, , M. A. Donelan, , P. A. Hwang, , A. J. Williams, , W. Drennan, , K. Kahma, , and S. Kitaigorodskii, 1992: Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath breaking waves. Nature, 359 , 219–220.
Andrews, D. G., , and M. E. McIntyre, 1978: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow. J. Fluid Mech, 89 , 609–646.
Ardhuin, F., , and A. D. Jenkins, 2005: On the effect of wind and turbulence on ocean swell. Proc. of the 15th Int. Polar and Offshore Engineering Conf., Vol. III, Seoul, South Korea, ISOPE, 429–434.
Banner, M. L., , A. V. Babanin, , and I. R. Young, 2000: Breaking probability for dominant waves on the sea surface. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 30 , 3145–3160.
Craig, P. D., , and M. L. Banner, 1994: Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surface layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 24 , 2546–2559.
Grant, W. D., , and O. S. Madsen, 1979: Combined wave and current interaction with a rough bottom. J. Geophys. Res, 84 , 1797–1808.
Janssen, P. A. E. M., , O. Saetra, , C. Wettre, , and H. Hersbach, 2004: Impact of the sea state on the atmosphere and ocean. Ann. Hydrograph, 3 .(772), 3-1–3-23.
Jenkins, A. D., 1989: The use of a wave prediction model for driving a near-surface current model. Deut. Hydrogr. Z, 42 , 133–149.
Jenkins, A. D., 2004: Lagrangian and surface-following coordinate approaches to wave-induced currents and air-sea momentum flux in the open ocean. Ann. Hydrograph, 3 , 772. 4-1–4-6.
Kantha, L. H., , and C. A. Clayson, 2004: On the effect of surface gravity waves on mixing in the oceanic mixed layer. Ocean Modell, 6 , 101–124.
Kitaigorodskii, S. A., , and J. L. Lumley, 1983: Wave-turbulence interactions in the upper ocean. Part I: The energy balance of the interacting fields of surface wind waves and wind-induced three-dimensional turbulence. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 13 , 1977–1987.
Komen, G. J., , L. Cavaleri, , M. Donelan, , K. Hasselmann, , S. Hasselmann, , and P. A. E. M. Janssen, 1994: Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves. Cambridge University Press, 554 pp.
Kudryavtsev, V. N., , and V. K. Makin, 2004: Impact of swell on the marine atmospheric boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 34 , 934–949.
Kudryavtsev, V. N., , V. K. Makin, , and B. Chapron, 1999: Coupled sea surface-atmosphere model. 2. Spectrum of short wind waves. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , 7625–7639.
McWilliams, J. C., , J. M. Restrepo, , and E. M. Lane, 2004: An asymptotic theory for the interaction of waves and currents in coastal waters. J. Fluid Mech, 511 , 135–178.
Melville, W. K., , F. Verron, , and C. J. White, 2002: The velocity field under breaking waves: Coherent structures and turbulence. J. Fluid Mech, 454 , 203–233.
Rogers, W. E., 2002: An investigation into sources of error in low frequency energy predictions. Oceanography division, Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center Tech. Rep. 7320-02-10035, 63 pp.
Rogers, W. E., , P. A. Hwang, , and D. W. Wang, 2003: Investigation of wave growth and decay in the SWAN model: Three regional-scale applications. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 33 , 366–389.
Smith, J. A., 1980: Waves, currents, and Langmuir circulation. Ph.D. thesis, Dalhousie University, 242 pp.
Snodgrass, F. E., , G. W. Groves, , K. Hasselmann, , G. R. Miller, , W. H. Munk, , and W. H. Powers, 1966: Propagation of ocean swell across the Pacific. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A249 , 431–497.
Teixeira, M. A. C., , and S. E. Belcher, 2002: On the distortion of turbulence by a progressive surface wave. J. Fluid Mech, 458 , 229–267.
Tolman, H. L., 2002: Validation of WAVEWATCH-III version 1.15. NOAA/NWS/NCEP/MMAB Tech. Rep. 213, 33 pp.