This work was supported by the NOAA Office of Climate Observations and NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory, Eddie Bernard, director. Much of the work presented here was obtained with the freeware analysis package, Ferret (information online at http://www.ferret.noaa.gov). We thank Steve Hankin and the members of his group at PMEL for their assistance in preparing the dataset for our work.
It is a pleasure to offer the work described here in this special issue for Carl Wunsch. Carl’s interest in the large-scale, low-frequency characteristics of the World Ocean has been made clear in many of his efforts. His tireless efforts in support of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and of the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry mission, his many years of work on ocean inverse methods, and his statistical studies of the challenges of identifying decadal-scale changes from relatively short records from red geophysical time series are examples of this interest. He has also always done the best he could to estimate the uncertainty in his efforts and has always been willing to buck the conventional wisdom when the data suggested that this was needed. We offer the results here in this same spirit.
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