The trouble with Carl (according to author Tziperman): After my first year as a graduate student, during which Carl was my assigned adviser, I came into his office and announced that I would be happy to work with him but that I was not interested in data analysis or inverse methods. Carl looked amused and let me know that was just fine. A few months later, Carl carefully edited a terribly written draft manuscript I had given him, deleting every other word and rewriting the rest; he then deleted his name from the author list, telling me that an adviser does not necessarily need to be a coauthor on his students’ papers. Some two years later, I was getting suspicious. With all these inverters around, and with Carl still never suggesting that I try working with inverse models, I became worried. Was I missing something? I ended up wanting to do an inverse model of something—anything. I proceeded, using Carl’s generous help, suggestions, and ideas, and Carl still did not wish to be a coauthor. I have been working with inverse models ever since; this clearly would not have been the case had Carl ever suggested that I try this. It took me many years to appreciate just how unique Carl’s ethics are. The trouble with Carl is that he is an impossible role model to follow. He is definitely an inspiration, though. Thank you, Carl.
Maria Rita d’Orsogna is gratefully acknowledged for having suggested the trick reported in Eq. (26). We thank two anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions. Author Pasquero was supported by the Davidow’s Discovery Fund, and author Tziperman was supported by the James McDonnell Foundation and by the NSF’s Climate Dynamics Program (Grant ATM-0351123).
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