This study is a contribution of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) funded by the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank R. Glazman and A. Ingersoll for asking the right questions. The first author thanks D. Farmer and C. Garrett for sparking his interest in Gibraltar Strait physics.
The first author dedicates this article, his first first-authored JPO article, to his teacher and friend Carl Wunsch. Once, while sharing a beer at the Sunset Grill and Tap, I jokingly asked Carl why he liked to work on impossible problems. Carl’s deadpan reply was, “Mass exceeding the speed of light is impossible. The problems that I work on are difficult but not impossible.”
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