This study is supported by the Carolina Coastal Ocean Observation and Prediction System (Caro-Coops) project under NOAA Grant NA16RP2543 via the National Ocean Service, through Charleston Coastal Services Center. Caro-COOPS is a partnership between the University of South Carolina and North Carolina State University. We thank Sam Liang for supplying the energy conversion and flow instability diagnostic program MS-EVA and Alan Wallcraft for assisting with the configuration of HYCOM at NCSU. The constructive suggestions from the two anonymous reviewers are also highly appreciated.
Atkinson, L. P., L. J. Pietrafesa, and E. E. Hofmann, 1982: An evaluation of nutrient sources to Onslow Bay, North Carolina. J. Mar. Res., 40 , 679–699.
Bane Jr., J. M., 1983: Initial observation of the subsurface structure and short-term variability of the sea-ward deflection of the Gulf Stream off Charleston, South Carolina. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 4673–4684.
Bane Jr., J. M., and D. A. Brooks, 1979: Gulf Stream meanders along the continental margin from the Florida Straits to Cape Hatteras. Geophys. Res. Lett., 6 , 280–282.
Bane Jr., J. M., D. A. Brooks, and K. R. Lorenson, 1981: Synoptic observations of the three-dimensional structure and propagation of Gulf Stream meanders along the Carolina continental margin. J. Geophys. Res., 86 , 6411–6425.
Bleck, R., C. Rooth, D. Hu, and L. T. Smith, 1992: Salinity-driven thermocline transients in a wind and thermohaline-forced isopycnic coordinate model of the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 , 1486–1505.
Brooks, D. A., and J. M. Bane Jr., 1978: Gulf Stream deflection by a bottom feature off Charleston, SC. Science, 201 , 1225–1226.
Brooks, D. A., and J. M. Bane Jr., 1981: Gulf Stream fluctuations and meanders over the Onslow Bay upper continental slope. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11 , 247–256.
Brooks, D. A., and J. M. Bane Jr., 1983: Gulf Stream meander off North Carolina during winter and summer, 1979. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 4633–4650.
Chao, S. Y., and G. S. Janowitz, 1979: The effect of a localized topographic irregularity on the flow of a boundary current along the continental margin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9 , 900–910.
Chassignet, E., L. Smith, G. Halliwell, and R. Bleck, 2003: North Atlantic simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Impact of coordinate choice, reference pressure, and thermobaricity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 2504–2526.
Dewar, W. K., and J. M. Bane Jr., 1985: Subsurface energetics of the Gulf Stream near the CB. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15 , 1771–1789.
Hoffmann, E. E., L. J. Pietrafesa, J. M. Klinck, and L. P. Atkinson, 1980: A time-dependent model of nutrient distribution in continental shelf waters. Ecol. Modell., 10 , 193–214.
Hood, C. A., and J. M. Bane Jr., 1983: Subsurface energetics of the Gulf Stream cyclonic frontal zone off Onslow Bay, North Carolina. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 4651–4662.
Janowitz, G. S., and L. J. Pietrafesa, 1982: The effect of alongshore variation in bottom topography on a boundary current. Cont. Shelf Res., 1 , 123–141.
Lee, T. N., and D. A. Mayer, 1977: Low frequency current variability and spin-off eddies along the shelf off the southeast Florida. J. Mar. Res., 35 , 193–220.
Lee, T. N., and L. P. Atkinson, 1983: Low frequency current and temperature variability from Gulf Stream frontal eddies and atmospheric forcing along the southeast U.S. outer continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 4541–4567.
Lee, T. N., L. P. Atkinson, and R. Legeckis, 1981: Observations of a Gulf Stream frontal eddy on the Georgia continental shelf, April 1977. Deep-Sea Res., 28A , 347–378.
Lee, T. N., E. Williams, J. Wang, R. Evans, and L. Atkinson, 1989: Response of South Carolina continental shelf waters to wind and Gulf Stream forcing during winter of 1986. J. Geophys. Res., 94 , 10715–10754.
Lee, T. N., and Coauthors, 1991: Gulf Stream frontal eddy influence on productivity of the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 22191–22105.
Legeckis, R. V., 1975: Application of synchronous meteorological data to the study of time-dependent sea surface temperature changes along the boundary of the Gulf Stream. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2 , 435–438.
Legeckis, R. V., 1979: Satellite observation of the influence of bottom topography on the seaward deflection of the Gulf Stream off Charleston, South Carolina. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9 , 483–497.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper 13, 173 pp. and 17 microfiche.
Liang, X. S., and A. R. Robinson, 2005a: Localized multiscale energy and vorticity analysis. Part I: Fundamentals. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 38 , 195–230.
Maul, G. A., P. W. deWitt, A. Yanaway, and S. R. Baig, 1978: Geostationary satellite observations of Gulf Stream meanders: Infrared measurements and time series analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 83 , 6123–6135.
Miller, J. L., and T. N. Lee, 1995a: Gulf Stream meanders in the South Atlantic Bight. 1. Scaling and energetics. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 6687–6704.
Miller, J. L., and T. N. Lee, 1995b: Gulf Stream meanders in the South Atlantic Bight. 2. Momentum balances. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 6705–6724.
Olson, D. B., O. B. Brown, and S. R. Emmerson, 1983: Gulf Stream frontal statistics from Florida Straits to Cape Hatteras derived from satellite and historical data. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 4569–4577.
Orlanski, I., 1969: The influence of bottom topography on the stability of jets in a baroclinic fluid. J. Atmos. Sci., 26 , 1216–1232.
Pietrafesa, L. J., and G. S. Janowitz, 1979: A note on the identification of a Gulf Stream spin-off eddy from Eulerian data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 6 , 549–552.
Pietrafesa, L. J., and G. S. Janowitz, 1980: On the dynamics of the Gulf Stream front in the Carolina Capes. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Stratified Flows, Tapir Publications, 184–197.
Pietrafesa, L. J., J. O. Blanton, and L. P. Atkinson, 1978: Evidence for deflection of the Gulf Stream at the Charleston Rise. Gulf Stream, Vol. 4, No. 9, 3, 6–7.
Pietrafesa, L. J., G. S. Janowitz, K. S. Brown, F. Askari, C. Gabriel, and L. A. Salzillo, 1988: The invasion of the Red Tide in North Carolina coastal waters. UNC Sea Grant Publication UNC-SG-WP-88-1, 25 pp.
Romanou, A., E. P. Chassignet, and W. Sturges, 2004: Gulf of Mexico circulation within a high-resolution numerical simulation of the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .C01003, doi:10.1029/2003JC001770.
Rooney, D. M., G. S. Janowitz, and L. J. Pietrafesa, 1978: A simple model of deflection of the Gulf Stream by the Charleston rise. Gulf Stream, Vol. 4, No. 11, 3–7.
Savidge, D. K., J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, and R. H. Evans, 1992: Influence of an offshore shift in the Gulf Stream on water of the South Carolina continental shelf. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22 , 1085–1094.
Sun, L. C., and L. J. Pietrafesa, 1992: Baroclinic-barotropic instabilities and energy transfers in the Gulf Stream. Proc. First World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts, Tampa, FL, International Assocation of Nonlinear Analysts, 3515–3532.
Tester, P. A., and K. A. Steidinger, 1997: Gymnodinium breve Red Tide blooms: Initiation, transport, and consequences of surface circulation. Limnol. Oceanogr., 42 , 1039–1051.
Tester, P. A., R. P. Stumpf, F. M. Vukovich, P. K. Flower, and J. T. Turner, 1991: An expatriate Red Tide bloom: Transport, distribution, and persistence. Limnol. Oceanogr., 36 , 1053–1061.
Xue, H., and G. Mellor, 1993: Instability of the Gulf Stream Front in the South Atlantic Bight. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 2326–2350.