CJH and WW were supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China through Grant 40476010 and National Basic Research Priorities Programmer of China through Grant 2005CB422302. RXH was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through CICOR Cooperative Agreement NA17RJ1223 to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This study is also supported through the Chinese 111 Project under Contract B07036. Comments by the two anonymous reviewers helped to improve this manuscript greatly.
Alford, M. H., 2003a: Improved global maps and 54-year history of wind-work on ocean inertial motions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1424, doi:10.1029/2002GL016614.
Alford, M. H., 2003b: Redistribution of energy available for ocean mixing by long-range propagation of internal waves. Nature, 423 , 159–162.
Bister, M., , and K. A. Emanuel, 2002: Low frequency variability of tropical cyclone potential intensity. I: Interannual to interdecadal variability. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4801, doi:10.1029/2001JD000776.
Boos, W. R., , J. R. Scott, , and K. A. Emanuel, 2004: Transient diapycnal mixing and the meridional overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 334–341.
Chelton, D. B., , R. A. deSzoeke, , M. G. Schlax, , K. El Naggar, , and N. Siwertz, 1998: Geographical variability of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 433–460.
Emanuel, K. A., 2001: Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 14771–14781.
Gates, W. L., , and A. B. Nelson, 1975: A new (revised) tabulation of the Scripps topography on a one-degree grid. Part 1: Terrain heights. Tech. Rep. R-1276-1-ARPA, The Rand Corporation, 132 pp.
Graham, N. E., , and W. B. White, 1988: The El Niño cycle: A natural oscillator of the Pacific ocean–atmosphere system. Science, 240 , 1293–1302.
Griffies, S. M., , and R. W. Hallberg, 2000: Biharmonic friction with a Smagorinsky-like viscosity for use in large-scale eddy-permitting ocean models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 2935–2946.
Gu, D., , and S. G. Philander, 1997: Interdecadal climate fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the Tropics and extratropics. Science, 275 , 805–807.
Hallberg, R., 2000: Time integration of diapycnal diffusion and Richardson number–dependent mixing in isopycnal coordinate ocean models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 1402–1419.
Hallberg, R., , and P. Rhines, 1996: Buoyancy-driven circulation in an ocean basin with isopycnals intersecting the sloping boundary. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 913–940.
Huang, R. X., , and J. Pedlosky, 1999: Climate variability inferred from a layered model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 779–790.
Huang, R. X., , and Q. Wang, 2001: Interior communication from the subtropical to the tropical oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 3538–3550.
Huang, R. X., , W. Wang, , and L. L. Liu, 2006: Decadal variability of wind energy input to the World Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. II, 53 , 31–41.
Knutson, T. R., , and S. Manabe, 1998: Model assessment of decadal variability and trends in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 11 , 2273–2296.
Kraus, E. B., , and J. S. Turner, 1967: A one-dimensional model of the seasonal thermocline. II: The general theory and its consequences. Tellus, 19 , 98–106.
Large, W. G., , J. C. McWilliams, , and S. C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys., 32 , 363–403.
Legler, D. M., , and J. J. O’Brien, 1988: Tropical Pacific wind stress analysis for TOGA. IOC Series of Ocean Measurements, ICO Technical Series 33, Vol. 4, UNESCO, 11–17.
Loder, J. W., , and C. Garrett, 1978: The 18.6-year cycle of sea surface temperature in shallow seas due to variations in tidal mixing. J. Geophys. Res., 83 , C4. 1967–1970.
Mantua, N. J., , S. R. Hare, , Y. Zhang, , J. M. Wallace, , and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 1069–1079.
McPhaden, M. J., , and D. Zhang, 2002: Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean. Nature, 415 , 603–608.
Mellor, G. L., , and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys., 20 , 851–875.
Nagasawa, M., , Y. Niwa, , and T. Hibiya, 2000: Spatial and temporal distribution of the wind-induced internal wave energy available for deep water mixing in the North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , C6. 13933–13943.
Osborn, T. R., 1980: Estimates of the local rate of vertical diffusion from dissipation measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10 , 83–89.
Pacanowski, R. C., , and S. G. H. Philander, 1981: Parameterization of vertical mixing in numerical models of tropical oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11 , 1443–1451.
Sandström, J. W., 1916: Meteorologische studien im schwedischen Hochgebirge. Goteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterhets-Samh Handl., Ser. 4, Vol. 22, No. 2, 48 pp.
Scott, J. R., , and J. Marotzke, 2002: The location of diapycnal mixing and the meridional overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 3578–3595.
Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. Part I: The basic experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91 , 99–164.
Thompson, L., , K. A. Kelly, , D. Darr, , and R. Hallberg, 2002: Buoyancy and mixed layer effects on the sea surface height response in an isopycnal model of the North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 3657–3670.
Wang, W., , and M. J. McPhaden, 2000: The surface-layer heat balance in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Part II: Interannual variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 2989–3008.
Wang, W., , and R. X. Huang, 2005: An experimental study on thermal circulation driven by horizontal differential heating. J. Fluid Mech., 540 , 49–73.
Wright, D. G., 1997: An equation of state for use in ocean models: Eckart’s formula revisited. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14 , 735–740.
Wunsch, C., , and R. Ferrari, 2004: Vertical mixing, energy and the general circulation of the oceans. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 36 , 281–314.
Zhai, X., , R. J. Greatbatch, , and J. Sheng, 2004: Advective spreading of storm-induced inertial oscillations in a model of the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L14315, doi:10.1029/2004GL020084.