This work is supported by the Australian Greenhouse Office of the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australia, and the Cooperative Research Centre program of the Australian government. The research is a contribution to the CSIRO Wealth from Oceans National Research Flagship.
We are pleased to contribute this work as an addition to a series of papers (that appeared in the February 2007 Journal of Physical Oceanography) honoring the contribution Carl Wunsch continues to make to science. The hydrographic data and altimetry data used in this study were both collected by programs that Carl was instrumental in getting off the ground (TOPEX/Poseidon) or out to sea (the World Ocean Circulation Experiment). Carl has made an immense contribution to improving our understanding and observations of the low-frequency variability of the ocean, through his advocacy for new approaches to observing the ocean and the development of new tools for the rigorous analysis and interpretation of those observations. Carl’s approach to science continues to inspire many of us who have worked with him.
Belkin, I. M., and A. L. Gordon, 1996: Southern Ocean fronts from the Greenwich Meridian to Tasmania. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 3675–3696.
Best, S. E., V. O. Ivchenko, K. J. Richards, R. D. Smith, and R. C. Malone, 1999: Eddies in numerical models of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and their influence on the mean flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 328–350.
Budillon, G., and S. R. Rintoul, 2003: Fronts and upper ocean thermal variability south of New Zealand. Antarct. Sci., 15 , 141–152.
Ducet, N., P. Y. Le Traon, and G. Reverdin, 2000: Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , C8. 19477–19498.
Gille, S. T., 1994: Mean sea-surface height of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Geosat data: Method and application. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , C9. 18255–18274.
Gordon, A. L., 1972: On the interaction of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Macquarie Ridge. Antarctic Oceanology II: The Australian-New Zealand Sector, D. E. Hayes, Ed., Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 19, Amer. Geophys. Union, 71–78.
Gouretski, V. V., and K. P. Koltermann, 2004: WOCE global hydrographic climatology. Tech. Rep. 35, Berichte des BSH, 54 pp.
Killworth, P. D., and C. W. Hughes, 2002: The Antarctic Circumpolar Current as a free equivalent-barotropic jet. J. Mar. Res., 60 , 19–45.
Le Traon, P., F. Nadal, and N. Ducet, 1998: An improved mapping method of multisatellite altimeter data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15 , 522–534.
MacCready, P., and P. B. Rhines, 2001: Meridional transport across a zonal channel: Topographic localization. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 1427–1439.
Maltrud, M. E., R. D. Smith, A. J. Semtner, and R. C. Malone, 1998: Global eddy-resolving ocean simulations driven by 1985–1994 atmospheric winds. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 30825–30853.
Maximenko, N. A., B. Bang, and H. Sasaki, 2005: Observational evidence of alternating jets in the World Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L12607, doi:10.1029/2005GL022728.
McWilliams, J. C., W. R. Holland, and J. Chow, 1978: A description of numerical Antarctic Circumpolar Currents. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 2 , 213–291.
Moore, J., M. Abbott, and J. Richman, 1999: Location and dynamics of the Antarctic polar front from satellite sea surface temperature data. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 3059–3073.
Morrow, R., A. Brut, and A. Chaigneau, 2003: Seasonal and interannual variations of the upper ocean energetics between Tasmania and Antarctica. Deep-Sea Res. I, 50 , 339–356.
Nakano, H., and H. Hasumi, 2005: A series of zonal jets embedded in the broad zonal flows in the Pacific obtained in eddy-permitting ocean general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 474–488.
Niiler, P. P., N. A. Maximenko, and J. C. McWilliams, 2003: Dynamically balanced absolute sea level of the global ocean derived from near-surface velocity observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .2164, doi:10.1029/2003GL018628.
Nowlin Jr., W. D., and M. Clifford, 1982: The kinematic and thermohaline zonation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at Drake Passage. J. Mar. Res., 40 , (Suppl.). 481–507.
Nowlin Jr., W. D., T. Whitworth, and R. D. Pillsbury, 1977: Structure and transport of Antarctic Circumpolar Current at Drake Passage from short-term measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 7 , 788–802.
Olbers, D., V. Gouretski, G. Seiß, and J. Schröter, 1992: Hydrographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 17 pp. + 82 plates.
Olbers, D., D. Borowski, C. Völker, and J-O. Wolff, 2004: The dynamical balance, transport and circulation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Antarct. Sci., 16 , 439–470.
Orsi, A. H., and T. W. Whitworth III, 2005: Southern Ocean. Vol. 1, Hydrographic Atlas of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), M. Sparrow, P. Chapman, and J. Gould, Eds., International WOCE Project Office, 223 pp.
Orsi, A. H., T. W. Whitworth III, and W. D. Nowlin Jr., 1995: On the meridional extent and fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Res. I, 42 , 641–673.
Panetta, R. L., 1993: Zonal jets in wide baroclinically unstable regions: Persistence and scale selection. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 2073–2106.
Peterson, R. G., and L. Stramma, 1991: Upper-level circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 26, Pergamon Press, 1–73.
Pollard, R. T., M. I. Lucas, and J. F. Read, 2002: Physical controls on biogeochemical zonation in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. II, 49 , 3289–3305.
Read, J. F., R. T. Pollard, A. I. Morrison, and C. Symon, 1995: On the southerly extent of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the southeast Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II, 42 , 933–954.
Rhines, P. B., 1977: The dynamics of unsteady currents: Marine modeling. The Sea, E. D. Goldberg et al., Eds., Ocean Engineering Science, Vol. 6, John Wiley and Sons, 189–318.
Rhines, P. B., 1989: Deep planetary circulation over topography: Simple models of midocean flows. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19 , 1449–1470.
Rintoul, S. R., and J. L. Bullister, 1999: A late winter hydrographic section from Tasmania to Antarctica. Deep-Sea Res. I, 46 , 1417–1454.
Rintoul, S. R., J-R. Donguy, and D. H. Roemmich, 1997: Seasonal evolution of upper ocean thermal structure between Tasmania and Antarctica. Deep-Sea Res. I, 44 , 1185–1202.
Rintoul, S. R., C. Hughes, and D. Olbers, 2001: The Antarctic Circumpolar Current system. Ocean Circulation and Climate, G. Siedler, J. A. Church, and J. Gould, Eds., Academic Press, 271–302.
Sievers, H. A., and W. D. Nowlin Jr., 1984: The stratification and water masses at Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res., 89 , 10489–10514.
Sparrow, M. D., K. J. Heywood, J. Brown, and D. P. Stevens, 1996: Current structure of the south Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 6377–6392.
Stammer, D., C. Wunsch, and R. M. Ponte, 2000: De-aliasing of global high frequency barotropic motions in altimeter observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 1175–1178.
Sun, C., and D. R. Watts, 2001: A circumpolar gravest empirical mode for the Southern Ocean hydrography. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 2833–2856.
Tansley, C. E., and D. P. Marshall, 2001: On the dynamics of wind-driven circumpolar currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 3258–3273.
Treguier, A. M., and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Topographic influences on wind-driven, stratified flow in a β-plane channel: An idealized mode for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20 , 321–343.
Treguier, A. M., and R. L. Panetta, 1994: Multiple zonal jets in a quasigeostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 2263–2277.
Watts, D. R., C. Sun, and S. R. Rintoul, 2001: A two-dimensional gravest empirical mode determined from hydrographic observations in the subantarctic front. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 2186–2209.
Webb, D. J., and B. A. de Cuevas, 2003: The region of large sea surface height variability in the southeast Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 1044–1056.
Williams, G. P., 1978: Planetary circulations: I. Barotropic representations of Jovian and terrestrial turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 1399–1426.
Wolff, J-O., E. Maier-Reimer, and D. J. Olbers, 1991: Wind-driven flow over topography in a zonal β-plane channel: A quasi-geostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21 , 236–264.