This work forms a part of the Ph.D. dissertation of HJK. We gratefully acknowledge funding from DOE (DE-FG02-04ER63857), ONR (N00014-05-1-0363), NASA (NNH04ZYS008N), NSF (ITR OCE01-21332), NOAA (NA17RJ1231 through ECPC and CORC), and California Current Ecosystem LTER (OCE-0417616). The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of these agencies. We appreciate many stimulating discussions with John McGowan, Russ Davis, and Elizabeth Venrick, as well as the important comments by the two anonymous referees.
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