This work was generously supported by NSF Grant OCE-0136760 and NOAA Grant NA04NOS4730156. I am indebted to Rocky Geyer, James Lerczak, Rob Hetland, Neil Banas, and Stephen Monismith for many discussions of these ideas.
Abood, K. A., 1974: Circulation in the Hudson River estuary. Hudson River Colloquium, O. A. Roels, Ed., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 250, New York Academy of Sciences, 38–111.
Banas, N. S., , B. M. Hickey, , P. MacCready, , and J. A. Newton, 2004: Dynamics of Willapa Bay, Washington: A highly unsteady, partially mixed estuary. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 2413–2427.
Bowen, M. M., 2000: Mechanisms and variability of salt transport in partially-stratified estuaries. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MIT/WHOI 00-04, 171 pp.
Chatwin, P. C., 1976: Some remarks on the maintenance of the salinity distribution in estuaries. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci., 4 , 555–566.
Garvine, R. W., , R. K. McCarthy, , and K-C. Wong, 1992: The axial salinity distribution in the Delaware estuary and its weak response to river discharge. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 35 , 157–165.
Geyer, W. R., , J. H. Trowbridge, , and M. M. Bowen, 2000: The dynamics of a partially mixed estuary. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 2035–2048.
Hetland, R. D., , and W. R. Geyer, 2004: An idealized study of the structure of long, partially mixed estuaries. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 2677–2691.
Lewis, R. E., 1996: Relative contributions of interfacial and bed generated mixing to the estuarine energy balance. Mixing in Estuaries and Coastal Seas, C. Pattiaratchi, Ed., Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol. 50, Amer. Geophys. Union, 250–266.
Monismith, S. G., , W. Kimmerer, , J. R. Burau, , and M. T. Stacey, 2002: Structure and flow-induced variability of the subtidal salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 3003–3018.
Park, K., , and A. Y. Kuo, 1996: Effect of variation in vertical mixing on residual circulation on narrow, weakly nonlinear estuaries. Buoyancy Effects on Coastal and Estuarine Dynamics, D. G. Aubrey and C. T. Friedrichs, Eds., Amer. Geophys. Union, 301–317.
Press, W. H., , S. A. Teukolsky, , W. T. Vetterling, , and B. P. Flannery, 1992: Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing. 2d ed. Cambridge University Press, 994 pp.
Smith, R., 1980: Buoyancy effects upon longitudinal dispersion in wide well-mixed estuaries. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 296A , 467–496.
Stommel, H., , and H. G. Farmer, 1952: On the nature of estuarine circulation, Part I. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Tech. Rep. 52-88, 131 pp.
Uncles, R. J., , and J. A. Stephens, 1990: The structure of vertical current profiles in a macrotidal, partially-mixed estuary. Estuaries, 13 , 349–361.
Warner, J. C., , W. R. Geyer, , and J. A. Lerczak, 2005: Numerical modeling of an estuary: A comprehensive skill assessment. J. Geophys. Res., 110 .C05001, doi:10.1029/2004JC002691.