The authors thank the many scientists and technicians at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography who have worked tirelessly to keep the AR7W program going. They have provided, and continue to provide, the oceanographic community with an incredibly valuable dataset. This study is dedicated to two of these scientists: John R. N. Lazier and R. Allyn Clarke. Author RP is grateful to these outstanding researchers for many enlightening discussions and insightful input over the years on the oceanography of the Labrador Sea. They are two of the pioneers in the study of this fascinating and complex area of the ocean. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation through Grants OCE-0450658 (RP) and OCE-024978 (MS).
Bacon, S., , W. J. Gould, , and Y. Jia, 2003: Open-ocean convection in the Irminger Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1246, doi:10.1029/2002GL016271.
Böning, C. W., , F. O. Bryan, , W. R. Holland, , and R. Doscher, 1996: Deep-water formation and meridional overturning in a high-resolution model of the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26 , 1142–1164.
Brandt, P., , A. Funk, , L. Czeschel, , C. Eden, , and C. Böning, 2007: Ventilation and transformation of Labrador Sea Water and its rapid export in the deep Labrador Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37 , 946–961.
Centurioni, L. R., , and W. J. Gould, 2004: Winter conditions in the Irminger Sea observed with profiling floats. J. Mar. Res., 62 , 313–336.
Clark, P. U., , N. G. Pisias, , T. F. Stocker, , and A. J. Weaver, 2002: The role of thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change. Nature, 415 , 863–869.
Clarke, R. A., , and J. C. Gascard, 1983: The formation of Labrador Sea water. Part I: Large-scale processes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 1764–1778.
Cuny, J., , P. B. Rhines, , P. P. Niiler, , and S. Bacon, 2002: Labrador Sea boundary currents and the fate of the Irminger Sea Water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 627–647.
Delworth, T., , S. Manabe, , and R. J. Stouffer, 1993: Interdecadal variations of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate, 6 , 1993–2011.
Dickson, R. R., , and J. Brown, 1994: The production of North Atlantic deep water: Sources, rates, and pathways. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 12319–12341.
Dickson, R. R., , J. R. N. Lazier, , J. Meincke, , P. B. Rhines, , and J. Swift, 1996: Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr., 38 , 241–295.
Fanning, A. F., , and A. J. Weaver, 1997: A horizontal resolution and parameter sensitivity study of heat transport in an idealized coupled climate model. J. Climate, 10 , 2469–2478.
Fischer, J., , F. A. Schott, , and M. Dengler, 2004: Boundary circulation at the exit of the Labrador Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 1548–1570.
Heywood, K. J., , E. L. McDonagh, , and M. A. White, 1994: Eddy kinetic energy of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from satellite altimetry. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 22525–22539.
Katsman, C. A., , M. A. Spall, , and R. S. Pickart, 2004: Boundary current eddies and their role in the restratification of the Labrador Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 1967–1983.
Lavender, K. L., , R. E. Davis, , and W. B. Owens, 2000: Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger Seas by direct velocity measurements. Nature, 407 , 66–69.
Lazier, J. R. N., , A. Clarke, , I. Yashayaev, , and P. Rhines, 2002: Convection and restratification in the Labrador Sea, 1990–2000. Deep-Sea Res., 49 , 1819–1835.
Lilly, J. M., , P. B. Rhines, , M. Visbeck, , R. Davis, , J. R. N. Lazier, , F. Schott, , and D. Farmer, 1999: Observing deep convection in the Labrador Sea during winter 1994/95. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 2065–2098.
Lilly, J. M., , P. B. Rhines, , F. Schott, , K. Lavender, , J. R. N. Lazier, , U. Send, , and E. D’Asaro, 2003: Observations of the Labrador Sea eddy field. Prog. Oceanogr., 59 , 75–176.
Marsh, R., 2000: Recent variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation inferred from surface heat and freshwater fluxes. J. Climate, 13 , 3239–3260.
Marsh, R., , B. A. de Cuevas, , A. C. Coward, , H. L. Bryden, , and M. Alvarez, 2005: Thermohaline circulation at three key sections in the North Atlantic over 1985–2002. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L10604, doi:10.1029/2004GL022281.
Mauritzen, C., 1996: Production of dense overflow waters feeding the North Atlantic across the Greenland-Scotland ridge. Part 1: Evidence for a revised circulation scheme. Deep-Sea Res., 43 , 769–806.
Mauritzen, C., , and S. Häkkinen, 1999: On the relationship between dense water formation and the “Meridional Overturning Cell” in the North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I, 46 , 877–894.
McCartney, M. S., 1992: Recirculating components to the deep boundary current of the northern North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr., 29 , 283–383.
McCartney, M. S., , and L. D. Talley, 1984: Warm-to-cold conversion in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14 , 922–935.
McManus, J. F., , R. Francois, , J-M. Gherardi, , L. D. Keigwin, , and S. Brown-Leger, 2004: Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes. Nature, 428 , 834–837.
Moore, G. W. K., , and I. A. Renfrew, 2005: Tip jets and barrier winds: A QuikSCAT climatology of high wind speed events around Greenland. J. Climate, 18 , 3713–3725.
Pickart, R. S., , and W. M. Smethie Jr., 1993: How does the Deep Western Boundary Current cross the Gulf Stream? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 2602–2616.
Pickart, R. S., , and W. M. Smethie Jr., 1998: Temporal evolution of the Deep Western Boundary Current where it enters the sub-tropical domain. Deep-Sea Res., 45 , 1053–1083.
Pickart, R. S., , M. A. Spall, , and J. R. N. Lazier, 1997: Mid-depth ventilation in the western boundary current system of the sub-polar gyre. Deep-Sea Res. I, 44 , 1025–1054.
Pickart, R. S., , D. J. Torres, , and R. A. Clarke, 2002: Hydrography of the Labrador Sea during active convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 428–457.
Pickart, R. S., , M. A. Spall, , M. H. Ribergaard, , G. W. K. Moore, , and R. F. Milliff, 2003a: Deep convection in the Irminger Sea forced by the Greenland tip jet. Nature, 424 , 152–156.
Pickart, R. S., , F. Straneo, , and G. W. K. Moore, 2003b: Is Labrador Sea Water formed in the Irminger Basin? Deep-Sea Res. I, 50 , 23–52.
Prater, M. D., 2002: Eddies in the Labrador Sea as observed by profiling RAFOS floats and remote sensing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 411–427.
Reid, J. L., 1994: On the total geostrophic circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean: Flow patterns, tracers, and transports. Prog. Oceanogr., 33 , 1–92.
Renfrew, I. A., , G. W. K. Moore, , P. S. Guest, , and K. Bumke, 2002: A comparison of surface layer and surface turbulent flux observations over the Labrador Sea with ECMWF analyses and NCEP reanalyses. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 383–400.
Ross, C. K., 1992: Moored current meter measurements across Davis Strait. NAFO SCR Doc. 92/70, 8 pp.
Smethie Jr., W. M., , and R. A. Fine, 2001: Rates of North Atlantic deep water formation calculated from chlorofluorocarbon inventories. Deep-Sea Res. I, 48 , 189–215.
Stocker, T. F., , and A. Schmittner, 1997: Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation. Nature, 388 , 862–865.
Straneo, F., 2006: On the connection between dense water formation, overturning, and poleward heat transport in a convective basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36 , 606–628.
Swift, J. H., 1984: The circulation of the Denmark Strait and Iceland-Scotland overflow waters in the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., 31 , 1339–1355.
Talley, L. D., , J. L. Reid, , and P. E. Robbins, 2003: Data-based meridional overturning streamfunctions for the global ocean. J. Climate, 16 , 3213–3226.
Våge, K., , R. S. Pickart, , G. W. K. Moore, , and M. H. Ribergaard, 2007: Winter mixed-layer development in the central Irminger Sea: The effect of strong intermittent wind events. J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press.
Worthington, L. V., 1976: On the North Atlantic Circulation. Vol. 6, The Johns Hopkins Oceanographic Studies, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 110 pp.