The authors gratefully acknowledge Phil Richardson for early work on the float trajectories over the MAR and Heather Furey for assistance in the final preparation of this manuscript. Thoughtful comments from two reviewers helped to clarify several points in the manuscript. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grants OCE-9531877 to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and OCE-9906775 to the University of Rhode Island, by the WHOI Summer Student Fellowship Program, and by the Lawrence J. Pratt and Melinda M. Hall Endowed Fund for Interdisciplinary Research at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Anderson-Fontana, S., , P. Lazarevich, , P. Perez-Brunius, , M. Prater, , H. T. Rossby, , and H-M. Shang, 2001: RAFOS float data report of the Atlantic Climate Change Experiment (ACCE) 1997–2000. Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island Tech. Rep. 01-4, 112 pp.
Belkin, I. M., , and S. Levitus, 1996: Temporal variability of the Subarctic Front near the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 28317–28324.
Bersch, M., , J. Meinke, , and A. Sy, 1999: Interannual thermohaline changes in the northern North Atlantic 1991–1996. Deep-Sea Res., 46 , 55–75.
Bower, A. S., and Coauthors, 2002: Directly measured mid-depth circulation in the northeastern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 419 , 603–607.
Curry, R. G., , and M. S. McCartney, 2001: Ocean gyre circulation changes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 3374–3400.
Dickson, R. R., , and J. Brown, 1994: The production of North Atlantic deep water: Sources, rates, and pathways. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 12319–12342.
Eden, C., , and J. Willebrand, 2001: Mechanism of interannual to decadal variability of the North Atlantic circulation. J. Climate, 14 , 2266–2280.
Flatau, M. K., , L. D. Talley, , and P. P. Niiler, 2003: The North Atlantic Oscillation, surface current velocities, and SST changes in the subpolar North Atlantic. J. Climate, 16 , 2355–2369.
Furey, H., , A. Bower, , and P. Richardson, 2001: Warm water pathways and intergyre exchange in the northeastern North Atlantic: ACCE RAFOS float data report. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Tech. Rep. WHOI-01-17, 153 pp.
Heywood, K. J., , E. L. McDonagh, , and M. A. White, 1994: Eddy kinetic energy of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from satellite altimetry. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 22525–22539.
Owens, W. B., 1991: A statistical description of the mean circulation and eddy variability in the northwestern Atlantic using SOFAR floats. Prog. Oceanogr., 28 , 257–303.
Rio, M-H., , and F. Hernandez, 2004: A mean dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and a geoid model. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .C12032, doi:10.1029/2003JC002226.
Rio, M-H., , P. Schaeffer, , J-M. Lemoine, , and F. Hernandez, 2006: Estimation of the ocean mean dynamic topography through the combination of altimetric data, in-situ measurements and GRACE geoid: From global to regional studies. Proc. GOCINA Int. Workshop, Luxembourg, Centre Européan de Géodynamique et de Séismologie.
Schott, F., , L. Stramma, , and J. Fischer, 1999: Interaction of the North Atlantic Current with the deep Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone throughflow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 369–372.
Seale, R. C., 1981: The active part of Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone: A study using sonar and other geophysical techniques. J. Geophys. Res., 86 , 243–262.
Smith, W. H. E., , and D. T. Sandwell, 1997: Sea floor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277 , 1956–1962.
Sy, A., 1988: Investigation of large-scale circulation patterns in the central North Atlantic: The North Atlantic Current, the Azores Current, and the Mediterranean water plume in the area of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Deep-Sea Res., 35 , 383–413.
Sy, A., , U. Schauer, , and J. Meincke, 1992: The North Atlantic Current and its associated hydrographic structure above and eastwards of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Deep-Sea Res., 39 , 825–853.
White, M. A., , and K. J. Heywood, 1995: Seasonal and interannual changes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from Geosat and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 24931–24942.