The TAO Project Office of NOAA/PMEL provided the mooring time series data. Constructive comments by two reviewers helped improve the original draft of this paper. Valuable discussions with Ralph Milliff on the scatterometer data are greatly appreciated. Weiqing Han and Jay McCreary provided the code of the linear stratified model. We also thank Alan Wallcraft for his assistance with running the HYCOM on the computing system at NOAA/ESRL. This work was supported in part by a grant from the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at NCAR. Toshiaki Shinoda is supported by the NOAA/CLIVAR–Pacific Grant from the Office of Global Programs and the NSF Grant OCE-0453046. Paul Roundy is supported by start-up funds from the Research Foundation for the State University of New York. George Kiladis is supported by NOAA’s Climate Program Office under Grant GC05-156.
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