Anders Leverman has provided highly appreciated ideas and input to this paper. The authors are also grateful to Fiamma Straneo and Tor Eldevik for organizing the Nordic seas workshop at which we met, and which motivated this study. Both the Department of Meteorology at Stockholm University (MISU) and the Earth Sciences Centre at Gothenburg University provided travel funding for collaborative visits. We also thank Pål-Erik Isachsen and Cecilie Mauritzen for their useful feedback on an earlier draft. The comments of two anonymous reviewers helped to improve the manuscript significantly. HLJ is funded by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship, and AKW by the Swedish Research Council, for which we are grateful.
Blindheim, J., , and S. Osterhus, 2005: The Nordic Seas: Main oceanographic features. The Nordic Seas: An Integrated Perspective, Geophys. Mongr., Vol. 158, Amer. Geophys. Union, 11–38.
Dickson, R., , B. Rudels, , S. Dye, , M. Karcher, , J. Meincke, , and I. Yashayaev, 2007: Current estimates of freshwater flux through Arctic and subarctic seas. Prog. Oceanogr., 73 , 210–230.
Dickson, R., , J. Meincke, , and P. Rhines, 2008: Arctic–Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate. Springer, 736 pp.
Furevik, T., , and J. EØ . Nilsen, 2005: The large-scale atmospheric circulation variability and its impact in the Nordic Seas ocean climate: A review. The Nordic Seas: An Integrated Perspective, Geophys. Mongr., Vol. 158, Amer. Geophys. Union, 105–136.
Iovino, D., 2007: On the Nordic Seas’ role in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bergen, 91 pp.
Isachsen, P. E., , C. Mauritzen, , and H. Svendsen, 2007: Dense water formation in the Nordic Seas diagnosed from sea surface buoyancy fluxes. Deep-Sea Res. I, 54 , 22–41.
Mauritzen, C., 1996a: Production of dense overflow waters feeding the North Atlantic across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Part 1. Evidence for a revised circulation scheme. Deep-Sea Res. I, 43 , 769–806.
Mauritzen, C., 1996b: Production of dense overflow waters feeding the North Atlantic across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Part 2. An inverse model. Deep-Sea Res. I, 43 , 807–835.
Pratt, L., , and J. Whitehead, 2008: Rotating Hydraulics: Nonlinear Topographic Effects in the Ocean and the Atmosphere. Springer, 589 pp.
Saloranta, T. M., , and P. M. Haugan, 2004: Northward cooling and freshening of the warm core of the West Spitsbergen Current. Polar Res., 23 , 79–88.
Serreze, M. C., and Coauthors, 2006: The large-scale freshwater cycle of the Arctic. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , C11010. doi:10.1029/2005JC003424.
Solomon, S., , D. Qin, , M. Manning, , M. Marquis, , K. Averyt, , M. M. B. Tignor, , H. L. Miller Jr., , and Z. Chen, Eds.,. 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Spall, M., 2002: Wind- and buoyancy-forced upper ocean circulation in two-strait marginal seas with application to the Japan/East Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 107 , 3006. doi:10.1029/2001JC000966.
Straneo, F., 2006: On the connection between dense water formation, overturning, and poleward heat transport in a convective basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36 , 1822–1840.
Vellinga, M., , and R. Wood, 2002: Global climatic impacts of a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Climatic Change, 54 , 251–267.
Walin, G., , G. Broström, , J. Nilsson, , and O. Dahl, 2004: Baroclinic boundary currents with downstream decreasing buoyancy: A study of an idealized Nordic Seas system. J. Mar. Res., 62 , 517–543.