This work was begun some years ago while the first author was still at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. It continued at Princeton and Yale. We are grateful for support from the NSF (OCE-0550439), the DOE Office of Science (DE-FG02-06ER64238 and DE-FG02-08ER64590), and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to AVF, and from NSF (OCE-01-18449, OCE-02-42083, and CTS-02-15638) to WKM. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their careful comments and questions, which have led to significant improvements in the paper.
Dommermuth, D. G., 1994: Efficient simulation of short and long-wave interactions with applications to capillary waves. Trans. ASME: J. Fluids Eng., 116 , 77–82.
Donelan, M. A., , B. K. Haus, , N. Reul, , W. J. Plant, , M. Stiassnie, , H. C. Graber, , O. B. Brown, , and E. S. Saltzman, 2004: On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 , L18306. doi:10.1029/2004GL019460.
Duncan, J. H., , V. Philomin, , M. Behres, , and J. Kimmel, 1994: The formation of spilling breaking water waves. Phys. Fluids, 6 , 2558–2560.
Duncan, J. H., , H. Qiao, , V. Philomin, , and A. Wenz, 1999: Gentle spilling breakers: Crest profile evolution. J. Fluid Mech., 379 , 191–222.
Fedorov, A. V., , W. K. Melville, , and A. Rozenberg, 1998: Experimental and numerical study of parasitic capillary waves. Phys. Fluids, 10 , 1315–1323.
Iafrati, A., , and E. F. Campana, 2003: A domain decomposition approach to compute wave breaking (wave-breaking flows). Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 41 , 419–445.
Jiang, L., , H. J. Lin, , W. W. Schultz, , and M. Perlin, 1999: Unsteady ripple generation on steep gravity-capillary waves. J. Fluid Mech., 386 , 281–304.
Komen, G. K., , L. Cavaleri, , M. Donelan, , K. Hasselmann, , S. Hasselmann, , and P. A. E. M. Janssen, 1994: Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves. Cambridge University Press, 532 pp.
Longuet-Higgins, M. S., 1992: Theory of weakly damped Stokes waves: A new formulation and a physical interpretation. J. Fluid Mech., 235 , 319–324.
Milinazzo, F. A., , and P. G. Saffman, 1990: Effect of a surface shear layer on gravity and gravity-capillary waves of permanent form. J. Fluid Mech., 216 , 93–101.
Morland, L. C., , P. G. Saffman, , and H. C. Yuen, 1991: Waves generated by shear layer instabilities. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 433A , 441–450.
Powell, M. D., , P. J. Vickery, , and T. A. Reinhold, 2003: Reduced drag coefficient for high wind speeds in tropical cyclones. Nature, 422 , 279–283.
Ruvinsky, K. D., , F. I. Feldstein, , and G. I. Freidman, 1991: Numerical simulations of the quasi-stationary stage of ripple excitation by steep gravity-capillary waves. J. Fluid Mech., 230 , 339–353.
Zakharov, V. E., , V. S. L’vov, , and G. Falkovich, 1992: Kolmogorov Spectra of Turbulence I: Wave Turbulence. Springer-Verlag, 264 pp.