We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs (Grant OPP-9816226/-0338103) and the Division of Ocean Sciences (Grant OCE-0327544). Janet Sprintall generously provided the temperatures and geostrophic shear estimates from the Drake Passage XBT data. We are also grateful to the captain and crew of the ARSV Laurence M. Gould and to Raytheon Polar Services Corporation for their excellent technical and logistical support on the cruises. Eric Firing, Jules Hummon, and Sharon Escher have been invaluable for their contribution to the ADCP data collection, processing, and editing. Conversations with Janet Sprintall, Sarah Gille, Shane Elipot, Jeff Polton, Gordon Stephenson, and Paola Cessi have provided much insight into the problem.
Bryden, H. L., and R. Heath, 1985: Energetic eddies at the northern edge of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Southwest Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr., 14 , 65–87.
Chereskin, T. K., and D. Roemmich, 1991: A comparison of measured and wind-derived Ekman transport at 1PN in the Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21 , 869–878.
Chereskin, T. K., and A. J. Harding, 1993: Modeling the performance of an acoustic Doppler current profiler. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10 , 43–63.
Chereskin, T. K., and C. L. Harris, 1997: Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiling during the WOCE Indian Ocean expedition: I10. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Tech. Rep. SIO 97–14, 137 pp.
Chereskin, T. K., and J. F. Price, 2001: Ekman transport and pumping. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, J. Steele, S. Thorpe, and K. Turekian, Eds., Academic Press, 809–815.
Chin, T., R. Milliff, and W. Large, 1998: Basin-scale high-wavenumber sea surface wind fields from multiresolution analysis of scatterometer data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15 , 741–763.
de Szoeke, R. A., and M. D. Levine, 1981: The advective flux of heat by mean geostrophic motions in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 28A , 1057–1085.
Dillon, T., J. Moum, T. Chereskin, and D. Caldwell, 1989: Zonal momentum balance at the equator. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19 , 561–570.
Elipot, S., 2006: Spectral characterization of Ekman velocities in the Southern Ocean based on surface drifter trajectories. Ph.D. thesis, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 140 pp.
Gille, S. T., 2005: Statistical characterization of zonal and meridional wind stress. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22 , 1353–1372.
Gregg, M., H. Peters, J. Wesson, N. Oakey, and T. Shay, 1985: Intensive measurements of turbulence and shear in the equatorial undercurrent. Nature, 318 , 140–144.
King, B. A., and E. B. Cooper, 1993: Comparison of ship’s heading determined from an array of GPS antennas with heading from conventional gyrocompass measurements. Deep-Sea Res. I, 40 , 2207–2216.
Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 1999: The NCEP–NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 247–267.
Lenn, Y-D., T. K. Chereskin, J. Sprintall, and E. Firing, 2007: Mean jets, mesoscale variability and eddy momentum fluxes in the surface layer of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage. J. Mar. Res., 65 , 27–58.
Lewis, D., and S. Belcher, 2004: Time-dependent, coupled, Ekman boundary layer solutions incorporating Stokes drift. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 37 , 313–351.
Milliff, R., J. Morzel, D. Chelton, and M. Freilich, 2004: Wind stress curl and wind stress divergence biases from rain effects on QSCAT surface wind retrievals. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21 , 1216–1231.
Orsi, A. H., T. Whitworth III, and W. D. Nowlin Jr., 1995: On the meridional extent and fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep-Sea Res. I, 42 , 641–673.
Pegion, P., M. Bourassa, D. Legler, and J. O’Brien, 2000: Objectively derived daily “wind” from satellite scatterometer data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 3150–3168.
Polton, J. A., D. M. Lewis, and S. E. Belcher, 2005: The role of wave-induced Coriolis–Stokes forcing on the wind-driven mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 444–457.
Prandtl, L., 1952: Essentials of Fluid Dynamics: With Applications to Hydraulics, Aeronautics, Meteorology and Other Subjects. Blackie and Son, 452 pp.
Price, J. F., R. A. Weller, and R. Pinkel, 1986: Diurnal cycling: Observations and models of the upper ocean response to diurnal heating, cooling and wind mixing. J. Geophys. Res., 91 , (C7). 8411–8427.
Rio, M-H., and F. Hernandez, 2003: High-frequency response of wind-driven currents measured by drifting buoys and altimetry over the world ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 3283. doi:10.1029/2002JC001655.
Sloyan, B. M., and S. R. Rintoul, 2001: The Southern Ocean Limb of the Global Deep Overturning Circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 143–173.
Smith, S. D., 1998: Coefficients for sea-surface wind stress, heat flux, and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 93 , (C12). 15467–15472.
Thomas, J. H., 1975: A theory of steady wind-driven currents in shallow water with variable eddy viscosity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5 , 136–142.
Wijffels, S., E. Firing, and H. Bryden, 1994: Direct observations of the Ekman balance at 10°N in the Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 1666–1679.
Wijffels, S., J. Willis, C. M. Domingues, P. Barker, N. J. White, A. Gronell, K. Ridgway, and J. A. Church, 2008: Changing expendable bathythermograph fall rates and their impact on estimates of thermosteric sea level rise. J. Climate, 21 , 5657–5672.